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SSA could not be possible without the generous support of Drs. Herbert A. and Betty Lou Lubs and the Science, Society, and the Arts Research Conference Endowment. We are deeply grateful!
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Thursday, March 16
 

5:00pm

SSA T-Shirt Pickup
Did you sign up for a T-shirt? If so, come pick it up in the Elrod Commons Living Room between 5 and 7 pm!

Thursday March 16, 2017 5:00pm - 7:00pm
Elrod Commons Living Room

7:30pm

Back to werk...*work — Johnson Theatre, Lenfest Center for the Arts
Performed by Lauren Arcinas, Kitanna Hiromasa, Grace Smith, Kiki Spiezio, Alexandra Seymour, Iman Messado


Thursday March 16, 2017 7:30pm - 10:00pm
Johnson Theatre, Lenfest Center for the Arts

7:30pm

Didn’t Know You, Work Song, Past Lives — Johnson Theatre, Lenfest Center for the Arts
Performed by General Admission: Elaina Prillaman, Jake Burnett, Axel Box, Tyler Wenger, Logan Wilson, Austin Frank, Caleigh Wells, Dalton Greenwood, Dana Gary, Daisy Kelly, Claire Hoffert, Hannah Palmatary, Jordan Goldstein, Alex Farley, Elizabeth Thompson, Charlie Radcliffe, Mitchell Thomas, Mike Bracey


Thursday March 16, 2017 7:30pm - 10:00pm
Johnson Theatre, Lenfest Center for the Arts

7:30pm

7:30pm

7:30pm

7:30pm

7:30pm

7:30pm

7:30pm

Politique, Absurde, et Carnaval — Johnson Theatre, Lenfest Center for the Arts
Performed by Blair Dewing, Amanda Ebling, Bennett Newman, Maddi Boireau, Claudia Kesala, Abdur Khan, Matt Inglis, Hunter Behne, JoAnn Michael, Nancy Stephen


Thursday March 16, 2017 7:30pm - 10:00pm
Johnson Theatre, Lenfest Center for the Arts

7:30pm

7:30pm

The Light Brigade — Johnson Theatre, Lenfest Center for the Arts
Performed by Dana Gary, Olivia Shaves, Axel Box, John Crum, Dalton Greenwood, Christofer Chang, Nathan Brewer, Austin Jennings, Jeremy Unterborn


Thursday March 16, 2017 7:30pm - 10:00pm
Johnson Theatre, Lenfest Center for the Arts

9:00pm

 
Friday, March 17
 

8:00am

SSA T-Shirt Pickup
Did you sign up for a T-shirt? If so, come pick it up in the Elrod Commons Living Room between 8 am and 12 pm!

Friday March 17, 2017 8:00am - 12:00pm
Elrod Commons Living Room

8:15am

Light Breakfast — Elrod Commons Living Room
Come get your t-shirts here!

Friday March 17, 2017 8:15am - 10:30am
Elrod Commons Living Room

9:00am

Anarchy, State, and Utopia by Robert Nozick — Newcomb 310
Participants: Erin An, Emily Bao, William Digges, Connor Donaldson, Stephen Edwards, Ian Huyett, Madeleine Lucas, Keeghan Sweeney


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Newcomb 310

9:00am

Between the World and Me by Ta-Nehisi Coates — Huntley 324
Participants: Aaron Abrams, Laura Bruce, Seth Cantey, Elena Diller, Hank Dobin, Arlette Hernandez, Lorena Hernandez Barcena, Virginia Kettles, Elizabeth Mugo, Haley Roland, Joelle Simeu


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Huntley 324

9:00am

Bo Burnham: Make Happy by Bo Burnham — Newcomb 120
Participants: Harris Billings, Zachary Christian, Hannah Dewing, Elliot Emadian, Austin Frank, Taylor Gulotta, Ashley Ooms, Marta Regn, Zeke Tobin, Logan Wilson


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Newcomb 120

9:00am

Ebony & Ivy: Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America's Universities by Craig Steven Wilder — Mattingly 101
Participants: Jessica Bowers, Sonia Brozak, Chi Ewusi, Elizabeth Knapp, Wilson Miller, Taylor Reese, Anne Remington, Elizabeth Teaff, Lesley Wheeler


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Mattingly 101

9:00am

Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City by Matthew Desmond — Ruscio CGL 123
Participants: Melina Bell, Sarah Clifford, Mark Coddington, Zac Crawford-Pechukas, Joseph DuChane, Tiffany Feller, Maya Ginga, Sierra Gray, Mary Nobles Hancock, Margaret Kallus, Iman Messado, LeGrand Northcutt, Katie Shester, Kiki Spiezio, Sutton Travis


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Ruscio CGL 123

9:00am

Game of Thrones by George R.R Martin, David Benioff, D.B. Weiss — Parmly 306
Participants: Kiera Judge, Julie Malone, Christopher Seaman, Anukriti Shrestha, Zack Spear


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Parmly 306

9:00am

Gone Girl by Gillian Flynn — Chavis Board Room, Commons 206
Participants: Hailey Glick, Ashleigh Meade, Anna Lee Riccio, Mariam Samuel


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Chavis Board Room, Commons 206

9:00am

Homegoing by Yaa Gyasi — Women’s Resource Room, Commons 216
Participants: Melissa Cox, Kokomo Metzger, Rachel Oguntola, Florentien Verhage, Lizzy Williams


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Women’s Resource Room, Commons 216

9:00am

Kitchens of the Great Midwest by J. Ryan Stradal — Hillel 203
Participants: Marcia France, Robin LeBlanc, Hannah Palmatary, Caroline Todd, Tyler Wenger


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Hillel 203

9:00am

Nobody: Casualties of America's War on the Vulnerable, from Ferguson to Flint and Beyond by Marc Lamont Hill — Reid 302
Participants: Sara Lamneck, Maya Lora, Gareth Minson, Erica Sieg, Anne Steel, Rachel Stone, Noya Zhou


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Reid 302

9:00am

Station Eleven by Emily St. John Mandel — Parmly 305
Participants: Lee Bernstein, Libby Cumming, Matt Donahue, Kaleigh Hinton, Claire Hoffert, Alicia Martinez, Jess Winn


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Parmly 305

9:00am

Stranger Things by Matt and Ross Duffer — IQ Center 202A (3D Computer Lab)
Participants: Mara Efimov, Rebecca Harbison, Betsy Henson, Colin Wallace, Ginna Wallace, Lucy Wolter


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
IQ Center 202A (3D Computer Lab)

9:00am

The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho — Newcomb 304
Participants: Barbara Rowe, Sesha Carrier, Audrey Dangler, Stephanie Fouts, Luisa Hernandez Juarez, Dannick Kenon, Dixon Layton, Rachael Miller, Shaun Soman, Wanda Swartz, Alexis Tabb


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Newcomb 304

9:00am

The Girl on the Train by Paula Hawkins — Howe 202
Participants: Sills O'Keefe, TJ Briggs, Debbie Alden, Keith Denning, Christina Han, Darby Lundquist, Mitchell Thomas, Katie Volk, Ciera Wilson


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Howe 202

9:00am

The Good Girl by Mary Kubica — Huntley 321
Participants: Jenny Borman, Molly Bush, Brantley Sanders, Catherine Simpson, Davis Straske, Kayleigh Yavorski


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Huntley 321

9:00am

The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot — Ruscio CGL 212
Participants: Abby Block, Anna Daccache, Kyle Friend, Josh Frost, Montrose Grandberry, Annie Jeckovich, Sara Jones, Fred LaRiviere, Tara Loughery, Ben Magod, Jake Roberts, Jennifer Saccente, Daniele San Roman, Erin Taylor, Joe Zoeller


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Ruscio CGL 212

9:00am

The Making of a Racist by Charles B. Dew — Volunteer Services Room, Commons 214
Participants: Douglas Cumming, Kevin Finch, Valerie Fulton, Patrick Hinely, Wendy Lovell, Jessica Willett


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Volunteer Services Room, Commons 214

9:00am

The Road to Reality by Roger Penrose — Payne 212
Participants: Zachary Baldridge, Daniel Clark, Zach Francis, Rossella Gabriele, Will Schirmer, Anna Soroka, Sarah Troise, David Williams, Matthew Withers, Eric Zhang


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Payne 212

9:00am

The Science of Discworld by Terry Pratchett, Ian Stewart, Jack Cohen — Ruscio CGL 201
Participants: Elizabeth Denne, Abdurrafey Khan, Joe Perrella, Gabi Tremo, Victor Yu


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Ruscio CGL 201

9:00am

The Smartest Kids in the World: and How They Got That Way by Amanda Ripley — Reid 216
Participants: Michael Bush, Alessandra Del Conte Dickovick, Tim Diette, Chantal Iosso, Jane Kim, Tom Marcais, Eric Moffa, Layne Setash, Kristin Sharman, Tanner Smith, Fon Teawdatwan


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Reid 216

9:00am

The Soil Will Save Us: How Scientists, Farmers, and Foodies Are Healing the Soil to Save the Planet by Kristin Ohlson — Washington 115
Participants: Claudette Artwick, Maddi Boireau, Reid Calhoun, Shlomo Honig, Tessa Horan, Rachel Norby, Lisa Rodocker, Hermione Wang


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Washington 115

9:00am

Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman — Ruscio CGL 115
Participants: Francisco Buenadicha Gomez, Mauricio Bustamante Eguiguren, Alice Cannon, Alex Dolwick, Mara Efimov, Batsheva Honig, Christopher Kirkland, Matt Lubas, Ryan McDonnell, Trang Nguyen, Justin Pusztay, Lauren Revere, Christopher Seaman, Zoe Stein, Jack Taylor, Aalekhya Tenali, Jennifer Zachry


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Ruscio CGL 115

9:00am

Watchmen by Alan Moore, art by Dave Gibbons — Reid 215
Participants: Lucy Cespedes, Jemma Levy, Bennett Lewis, Zach Taylor


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Reid 215

9:00am

9:00am

Zootopia by Byron Howard and Rich Moore — Mattingly 201
Participants: Adit Ahmed, Emily Bao, Bobo Bors, Mara Efimov, Lauren Kim


Friday March 17, 2017 9:00am - 10:15am
Mattingly 201

10:30am

Corporate Responsibility: From Music Streaming to Prison Labor — Ruscio CGL 203
Streaming Services and Responsibility in the Music Industry: Morality, Corporate Form, and an Alternative Model (Paper)
Kathleen Sharpe
It is no secret that the music industry is in crisis. Even streaming services, such as Spotify, the ubiquitous streaming platform, has never been profitable. Spotify currently awards one-tenth of a penny to artists per stream, while 80% of their annual revenue is spent on licensing and royalties to major record labels. In this article, I will advocate for a different business model for streaming platforms in which streaming services will work directly with the artists. I will discuss bringing value back to the music industry by altering streaming models. I will that giving larger amounts of revenue to artists is not only a better business model, but is in and of itself an act of corporate social responsibility. Finally, I will discuss what allows streaming services, such as Tidal, who do give more revnue to artists, to perform under this model, by discussing the corporate form.

The CSR of Private Prisons (Paper)
Chloe Bilodeau
I would like to write my paper about the Corporate Social Responsibility of prison labor. I will discuss both the positives and negatives of this type of CSR. I hope to come at this topic from both sides of the aisle but will ultimately propose that they do not engage in this practice. Many scholars find prison labor to be a human rights violation. Others find it to be a rehabilitative opportunity for the prisoners whereby they learn valuable skills. My audience for the paper would be a private corporation deciding whether to use prison labor. I found several scholarly articles about this topic. I may also discuss the evils of private prisons to persuade the corporation not to profit off of this enterprise.

Norfolk Southern: Behaviors and Events Related to Fraud Risks (Paper)
Matthew Rickert
An analysis of Norfolk Southern Corporations structured and unstructured data to determine possible and probable fraud schemes.

Corporate Social Responsibility in the Pharmaceutical World: An Alternative Approach (Paper)
Hollie Webb
This project came about through Professor Kish Parella's law seminar course, Corporate Social Responsibility. This paper will look at the social responsibility of pharmaceutical companies regarding drug pricing under the current predominant business model of shareholder primacy. I will analyze this through the case of Pfizer's price increase on its childhood pneumonia vaccine, showing how the shareholder model will inevitably continue to produce similar results. Finally, using Edward Freeman's stakeholder theory, I will suggest an alternative model and describe how that might look.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Ruscio CGL 203

10:30am

Creative Teamwork — Huntley 323
What is Home? (Creative Writing)
Azmain Amin, Al Mubarak Adeliye, Joseph Kerr, JoAnn Michel, Dario Muniz, Sidney Sikes, Charles Snedaker, Katrina Spiezo, Kristina Stukalin
Critical, creative and theatrical presentations exploring the immigrant experience and the many meanings of and concepts related to home, the loss of home, and the yearning of home.

Murder Mystery (Creative Writing)
Ryann Carpenter
As a group assignment in Calculus with Biological Applications, we created our own problem that has to be solved with calculus. Our problem involves intricate plot lines and creative details in order to capture the audiences' attention. To solve the problem, one must use several calculus methods like anti-derivatives to find the solution


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Huntley 323

10:30am

Cultures in Transition — Huntley 230
Chinese Cinematic Experience (Paper)
Yolanda Yang, Savannah Kimble
By comparing movies shown in Chinese cinemas and their original version shown in the US, we have proven that a number of films are censored by the Chinese authorized institution SARFT. Our findings include: the main reason for censorship is the various cultural differences between China and the western countries; there are three main types of censorship: film clipping, film editing and eliminating from cinemas; the globalization trend has caused some films that were initially censored in China to become accessible in their full formats now; the growing of Chinese economy has resulted in Hollywood catering movies to Chinese audiences. Besides, we also interviewed local Chinese people and professors in Beijing, collecting their views of the movie censorship policies; thus, by observing how the policies has influenced people's life currently we could possibly predict the changes of the policies in the near future.

“Candle in the Wind”: Modern Material Culture and Iconography in American Cemeteries (Paper)
Bryan D’Ostroph
When one reflects upon a life they have lived, by whom or what do they want to be remembered? In modern American cemeteries, there has been a shift since the end of the twentieth century to memorialize one’s life through novel forms of gravestone iconography and material culture. This shift is somewhat of a paradox, as the specificity of the objects has decreased in scope while the variation has increased. By employing anthropological theory and case studies from the field, this research begins to look at how this paradoxical shift has changed social relationships in American communities and whether this has shaped a new form of solidarity amongst its members.

The Faeries of Tomm Moore's Song of the Sea: Ancient Roots and Modern Connotations (Paper)
Alice Kilduff
Tomm Moore’s animated feature Song of the Sea urges Irish audiences to return to their pre-Christian roots. Cultural revival not only gives Ireland a distinct identity in the post-colonial and post-Celtic Tiger age but also serves as an environmentalist strategy: given the animistic nature of druidism and the superstitions descended from it, the Irish cannot revive their culture without protecting the environment, and vice versa. In this paper, I discuss how the faeries are the central vehicles for this message in the film, harnessing Irish oral tradition that views the faeries as both the ancients and the intermediaries between nature and humanity. Moore takes stories and taboos about faeries and updates them, breaks them, turns the faeries into creatures with which humans must interact, whose survival depends on being remembered by humanity. Through interaction with faerie mythology, nature regains its sacredness, and a mandate for its protection is thereby created.

Heroes, Zombies, & Paranoia: American Film after 9/11 (Paper)
Virginia Kettles
My research paper looks at the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, and its effects on American cinema in the years following the event. This draws specifically on films directly about 9/11, censorship of films with terrorist or twin towers imagery, the rise of escapism with fantasy epics, and the connection of increasingly-popular zombie films with the War on Terror.

Ambition in Italy: A Cultural Examination of the Transition Between School and Work (Paper)
Diana Banks
This presentation will explore the themes of ambition and motivation through the lens of a critical transition in emerging adulthood - the transition from school to the working world, where many young people face the smaller questions of, "What do I want to do" along with larger concepts of "Who do I want to be?". I investigated the factors of influence during this decision-making process, and went to Italy to understand how Italians and Americans feel differently about pursuing their "next step". My presentation will explore interview accounts to reveal insights about the Italian school system, the influence of cultural expectations, and methods of encouragement that affect motivation and ambition during this stage of life. These findings are relevant to the way we choose to guide young adults through the process of actively navigating their future, but explores a transitionary period that is felt and understood personally by all.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Huntley 230

10:30am

Digital Storytelling: Going Where They Live — Science Addition 114
Engineering Community Development Bios and Water Filter in Belize (Digital Story)
Ryder Babik, Walker Brand, Charlie Connellan, Bennett Hermann, Matt Lubas, Stephen McCaffery, Natalie Smith, Kennedy Wynn-Gibson
My team and I of Engineering Community Development will be building a Bio-Sand Water Filtration system at a local elementary school in a Mennotite community through a local contacts with an organization called Basecamp Belize. This trip over Feb Break, we will be looking at maintence of a prior built filter, discussing the challenges of the build/ communication, and scouting out future projects in Belize- like a solar sterilization unit. We hope to partner our colloquium with other groups presenting on challenges/ experiences in Belize.

From Country to Campus: Covering Third-Year Housing through Digital Storytelling (Digital Story)
Katherine Paxton, Kiki Spiezio, Caroline Sanders, Brandon Walsh, and several people who have already graduated
This project, From Country to Campus: Third-Year Housing Shifts W&L's Storied Social Scene, was reported, produced and designed by 14 students who enrolled in a course taught for the first time in fall 2015 at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Va. The course, Multimedia Storytelling Design, attracted journalism, history, politics and English majors who wondered how The New York Times and The Guardian put together their Pulitzer Prize-winning interactive stories, Snow Fall: The Avalanche at Tunnel Creek and NSA Files Decoded: What the Revelations Mean for You. Students went "behind the curtain" and learned basic web design and programming skills through HTML, CSS and JavaScript, and used other digital tools to imagine, design and create powerful, compelling interactive features with audio, video, graphics—and words—that are on the cutting edge of journalism and mass communications

From Dirt to Display Case: Archaeology of the Athenian Agora (Digital Story)
Mason Grist
I was a member of the excavations at the Agora of Classical Athens this summer; I learned a lot about Classical Greece, especially the Agora, during my work. The presentation will be an expanded version of a 30-minute presentation I have prepared for the Classics Department to be given September 22. Specifically, I will discuss the use of technology in the field today and how uncovering artifacts helps us in the greater goal of uncovering and understanding the space where some of the greatest statesmen in history once stood.

Get Out There (Digital Story)
Harry Lustig
I will be showing a video "digital story" of various travel and study abroad experiences with spoken voice overs from personal travel journals. The overall message is to have a positive outlook and to "get out there." I hope that this video will inspire others to get outdoors and reap its many benefits.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Science Addition 114

10:30am

France and French Culture — Huntley 301
French Identity and Algerian Immigration (Paper)
Jack McGee
In this project, I examine the history of immigration from Algeria to France in the 20th Century. Discourse about immigrants from Algeria, a former French settler colony, offers a helpful case study to understand the construction of “French” identity in relation to colonial subjects. With the rise of the xenophobic far right in France, this paper will help contextualize that rhetoric within a larger historical trajectory. It will also help to connect current discourse on race and sexuality to former colonial policy. An exclusive notion of ‘Frenchess’ as white, secular, and sexually ‘modern’ formed during the colonial period and worked to create distance between France and its colonies beginning in the 19th Century. This paper will explore both the history of immigration from Algeria and the ways in which rhetoric about immigration creates an exclusive French identity.

Writing an Honors Thesis Through the Digital Humanities (Paper)
Abdurrafey Khan
Huon d'Auvergne is a Franco-Italian epic about a man and his journey into Hell. The epic poem survives in the form of four different manuscripts found across Europe as well as a digital edition. The project involves digitizing and displaying all four versions of the story side by side on a single website to make close reading and text analysis possible, and requires the application of several digital humanities techniques. This project will present these techniques and how they were used in order to create the website and a digital honors project.

A Tale of Two André's (Paper)
Sam Gibson
My paper examines two figures in the discourse on homosexuality, Marc-André Raffalovich who wrote on homosexuality around the turn of the century, and celebrated author André Gide, who wrote the controversial Corydon in 1924. Both men attempted to subvert the contemporary narratives about homosexuality both directly and indirectly; however, both of their works employ uniquely French vocabularies about sexuality in telling ways. Both Raffalovich and Gide attempt to construct a homosexual identity to fit compatibly with wider French society and its values of masculinity, virility, valor, and natalism. Gide, motivated by his unique personal morality, and Raffalovich, inspired by his profound Catholic faith, both seek to push back against the pathologizing discourse. In this way, we can use texts that were explicitly meant to challenge narratives about homosexuality to illustrate the structural influence of the very same political and social forces that undergirded the medical and moral repudiation of homosexuality.

The Burkini Controversy in France (Paper)
John Dannehl
Controversy erupted across France this past summer due to the banning of the burkini, a type of swimsuit worn predominantly by Muslim women. In several cities across the country, mayors banned the swimsuit, citing security concerns after the July 14th, 2016 terrorist attack in Nice. What began as a local issue in the French press quickly evolved into a national scandal, touching on issues of economics, national identity, religious expression, and feminism. This presentation will focus on a sub-theme of the burkini controversy, using a variety of articles from the French press and academic literature to explain how and why a simple article of clothing created such a lasting uproar in French society. Was it worth it to ban the burkini in the name of national security? Does the ban offer a larger commentary on the integration of French Muslims into contemporary French society?

Taming the Knights Templar: from Fighting Frescoes to Marian Murals (Paper)
Aidan Valente
This paper examines the historical, social, and religious contexts surrounding a set of frescos within the Templar chapels at Cressac and Coulommiers, France. By analyzing these frescos in conjunction with an examination of Templar history, I aim to offer insight into the reasons for the depiction of certain figures and events in these religious settings. Furthermore, I present a glimpse into the nature of the Templar order beyond the well-known Crusading knights in the Levant, and instead focus on its lay members in the West, particularly France. Thus, this paper touches on issues of art and patronage, Medieval culture and religion, European history, and more in a decidedly interdisciplinary approach.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Huntley 301

10:30am

Freedom and Self in Existentialism — Huntley 321
Freedom and Movement: A Synthesis of the Philosophies of Simone de Beauvoir and Jean Paul Sartre (Paper)
Sesha Carrier
Simone de Beauvoir uses an understanding of the connectedness of human beings throughout her 1947 work, Ethics of Ambiguity to argue that the human condition depends on an assertion of freedom throughout free “others”. In this claim, Beauvoir differs from some of her existentialist counterparts, namely Sartre, and their focus on the individualistic nature of existence. This essay contrasts Beauvoir and Sartre’s rhetoric on the individual to conclude that existentialism can respond to oppression through combining Sartre’s notion of the responsibility of consciousness with Beauvoir’s idea of freedom as movement. This synthesis provides an answer to how a free consciousness has the total responsibility of seeking out a constant disclosure of the world through free movement to combat oppression.

Everyday Shame (Paper)
Rachael Miller
Jean Paul Sartre's 'Being and Nothingness' describes what it means to have an experience of shame, both for the Self and the Other. Sartre uses this description as a launching pad to claim that far from providing its own justification for its existence, the Self is determined by the Other. Is this assertion, however, necessarily a reasonable one? In this essay, I demonstrate that the answer to that question is ‘no.’ By providing a more in-depth description of Sartre’s account of the interaction with the Other, I show that the shame the Self experiences is not a reflection of the Other’s judgement, but a conditioned response to the Self’s intentional wrongdoing. I then employ Martin Heidegger’s concept of Das Man in conjunction with Jeremy Bentham's Panopticon to ultimately assert that shame’s true origin is as a self-enforced and mutually-policed political tool meant to encourage complacency among citizens of a state.

Existentialism Paper Panel (Paper)
Alex Farley
Sartre’s construction of shame involves one subject temporarily reducing another to the status of an ‘object’; however, this subject still remains a free consciousness and is thus able to flip the dynamic on ‘the other’ to cast off shame. In contrast, with Fanon’s dynamic of oppression, in which subjecthood is destroyed, oppression cannot be reversed. This reversal, as explained by Gordon Lewis, is impossible due to the elevation of the oppressor to a God-like status. While Sartre’s construction is inadequate, he does make an important observation, that the emotion that one feels in the face of an eternal subject is fear. Combining this idea with Gordon’s duality of personhood yields the conclusion that in a society of oppression, shame is transformed to fear in oppressed individuals. I conclude by emphasizing the need of empowered individuals coming together to reform the status quo and embrace the role of being an ally.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Huntley 321

10:30am

Germany’s Welcome for Refugees – in Context — Ruscio CGL 104
Liberty and Justice for All?: How Different Constitutional Identities Produce Different Approaches to the Refugee Crisis (Paper)
Chi Ewusi, Carmen Vetter, Erin Simmerock, Maressa Cuenca
This is a four-person panel based off of comparative constitutional research initiated at the University of Giessen (Germany) and Strasburg, France in March 2016. This work was further complimented by the German Law Journal’s Home and Away series from Fall/Winter 2016. The panelists will discuss the histories and rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution and Germany’s Basic Law to show how the two countries, despite both being democracies, have fundamentally different identities that influence their responses to immigration and related issues like racism. The panelists will briefly touch upon the Schengen agreement (abolishment of borders in the EU) and how Europe—and America—currently struggle to uphold the ideals of globalism.

Goodbye Lenin, Hello AfD: The Effect of Communism on Individual Attitudes Towards Immigration (Paper)
Matthew Carl
Individuals’ attitudes towards immigration are deeply affected by the socio-political institution of the country in which they reside. Utilizing data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, empirical findings demonstrate that former East Germans are statistically significantly 3.8-percent more likely to be very concerned about immigration in Germany than former West Germans due to residence in the communist regime of former East Germany. Further results indicate that the difference in attitudes converges slightly over time, and that former East Germans born in the communist regime drive the observed difference. Finally, level of trust and concern about crime in Germany are shown to be the most salient channels for differences in attitudes


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Ruscio CGL 104

10:30am

Historical Art and Faith in Europe and America — Ruscio CGL 214
Horatio Greenough's Washington: Exploring Jacksonian Era American Artistic Taste (Paper)
Dylan Stroud
The year 1832 saw a pivotal moment in the history American sculpture when the American government awarded Horatio Greenough (1805- 1852) the first federal commission ever given to an American sculptor. Working out of a small, abandoned church in the hills just outside Florence, Italy, Greenough completed his magnum opus in 1840. As a federal commission, this statue was to be an integral piece in the patriotic decoration of Washington D.C., the fast-growing American capital city, where it was to sit beneath the Capitol's rotunda. The American public rejected the sculpture and unceasingly disparaged its classical representation of Washington at the time of its unveil beneath within the Capitol and throughout the years that followed. Greenough’s public sculpture was openly considered a failure. This paper will explore Jacksonian America and the social developments that influenced a new American artistic taste that prevails until this day through analyzing Greenough's work.

Economic Modernization and Artistic Expression in the Dutch Golden Age (Paper)
Bailey Brilley
From the early 17th-century to its end, the Netherlands saw a period of industrialization and economic development unrivaled by its peer states of Western Europe. As it industrialized and expanded, the nation experienced an equally-unrivaled artistic revolution—economists and art historians alike refer to the period as the nation’s Golden Age. My paper draws a causative link between Holland’s correlated economic growth and artistic proliferation, explaining Golden Age painters’ divergent style as a sociocultural extension of economic modernization. It delineates the influence of the nation's macroeconomic development on (1) the Dutch painting market and (2) the period's distinct style.

Portrait of a Landscape: Changing Depictions of Early Modern Florence in Literature and Art (Paper)
Sonia Brozak
The Florentine urban landscape has long captured the imaginations of artists, writers, painters and sculptors. The home of the birth of the Early Modern, Florence and its skyline have acted as symbols for the birth in early modern thinking. As such, depictions of the Florentine urban landscape within literature and the visual arts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries divulge a shift in approach by artists and in understanding by the viewer to cityscapes as narrative devices. These shifts entail a change from linear depictions of space into complex narratives of mapping. In my research, I trace these shifts through some of the great literary works of the Renaissance such as Dante's Inferno and Boccacio's Decmeron. Looking that arc, I examine the way the visual arts follow this trend using frescoed depictions of the cityscape.

Political Liberty in Medieval Christian Thought (Paper)
Ian Huyett
Written for Timothy Lubin’s Law and Religion seminar, my paper surveys Christian jurisprudence and political philosophy from the late classical period to the 13th century. I studied – among other texts – the Digest of Justinian, the Policraticus of John of Salisbury, the Decretum of Gratian, and De Regimine Principum by Thomas Aquinas and Ptolemy of Lucca. My paper argues that, contrary to some modern characterizations of Christianity, medieval Christian thinkers did not understand their faith to be isolated from law and politics. Specifically, I argue that Christianity often functioned to circumscribe rather than undergird the state’s power. I focus on two principal ways in which it did so: first, by affirming a robust conception of political liberty which included the freedom to sin, and second, by providing that an oppressive government – in the words of the German monk Manegold – “releases the people from their duty of obedience.”

The Evolution of Special Effects (Paper)
Maggie Waxter
The rapid growth in the Italian Renaissance influenced many changes in the theater industry. More specifically the use of special effects, like 3D scenery and machines helped enhance the story unfolding on the stage. After these new developments breached the Italian stage the ideas were so exciting that they spread across the world. The new aspects helped add depth and make the setting and objects seem that much more real. Two men and one family in particular led the charge to design features that could draw the audience in. Sebastiano Serlio, Giacomo Torelli, and members of the Bibiena families were the first to start using three-dimension designs and machines to enhance theater special effects. Serlio’s work in three-dimensional art, Torrelli’s mechanized pole and chariot system, and the theatrical structures constructed by the Bibenas revolutionized the reality of special effects, and improved the model for theater structures worldwide.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Ruscio CGL 214

10:30am

Lost in the Working World — Huntley 327
Directional Empathy at Washington and Lee University: “Not Unmindful of Our Service Workers” (Paper)
Tara Loughery, Elena Diller, Austin Frank, Riley Wilson
Directional empathy, the ability to understand the perspectives of others in lower status, has consistently been shown to better relationships between individuals of different social positions. Moreover, this ability can be developed in various ways. In pursuit of improving campus dynamics, we examine how students’ service employment and community service develop students’ directional empathy towards service employees on Washington and Lee’s campus. We hypothesized that service employment and community service experience respectively would be more effective in developing directional empathy than having neither of these experiences. Though we did not find significant support for community service, we did find significant support for the effectiveness of previous service employment on directional empathy development. Finally, we hypothesized that service employment would be more effective than community service experience in developing directional empathy. Although we did not find significant support for this hypothesis, a promising trend in the data warrants further exploration.

Treatment of Low-Skilled EU Immigrant Workers in Denmark: A Copenhagen Photo Story (Digital Story)
Keith Denning, Hermione Wang, Kellie Harra, Kelsey Park
Low-skilled workers from other EU countries come to Denmark in search of better employment. Due to the welfare state and an excellent education system, most Danes have little incentive to take jobs in the construction and service industries, resulting in many of these jobs falling to low-skilled foreign workers. Low-skilled workers are under pressure to find work and therefore are willing to accept lower pay with worse working conditions. Hence, they are at risk of being treated unfairly by employers. This digital story will address the issue of the treatment of low-skilled EU immigrants by Danish firms through exploring the history of immigration in Denmark and looking at examples from three companies. We will examine facility services company ISS, pump manufacturer Grundfos, and metro construction firm Metroselskabet. The story concludes with an analysis of the actions by these three firms in the context of Danish society.

A Supply-Side Estimation of the Equilibrium Rate of Unemployment (Paper)
Chris Curfman
The continuously-falling headline unemployment rate over the past two or three years in the absence of a corresponding rise in inflation has led to uncertainty about the Congressional Budget Office's estimate of the equilibrium rate of unemployment (ERU), the rate below which inflation is expected to begin to rise. For this reason, the ERU plays a key role in the setting of monetary and fiscal policy. This paper adds to the discussion on the matter by utilizing the Wage-Setting Price-Setting (WS-PS) micro-founded macroeconomic model, first created and employed in the 1990's, to analyze current macroeconomic conditions and estimate the equilibrium rate of unemployment in the US over the last 20 years, with a particular emphasis on the period since the Great Recession.

Their Voices: The Refugee Crisis in Greece (Digital Story)
Maren Lundgren, Elissavet Chartampila
Greece has seen hundreds of thousands of refugees pass through its borders, either to stay or to migrate further north to other European countries (Refugees/Migrants Emergency Response). This summer we spent one month in Thessaloniki, Greece where we undertook a project to look at the impacts the refugee crisis has had on Greece, as well as the impacts this crisis has had on refugees. We worked with two NGOs (Antigone and Oikopolis), visiting a refugee camp and providing activities to its inhabitants. We also spent some time conducting interviews with urban refugees and taking pictures. Our digital storytelling project, seen through a small sample of the pictures and interviews we collected, represents the stories of the people we met and worked with the aim of humanizing the refugee crisis.

Analyzing Omni-Channel Interaction (Digital Story)
Phil Bennett
I would like to present a project that explores the connections between digital and physical interactions. In detail, the project cross-references and correlates social media data and real life events to give meaning to the relationship between the digital and physical planes. This presentation answers questions like: how and why information flows through the web as it stems from its geographic origin; how and why videos become viral; and do articles and stories published in traditional news sources (print, television) have meaningful effect on how information is processed and retained by online agents (social media user)? Essentially the presentation and study addresses the cause-effect relationship between the digital and physical worlds, including how effective this process is and whether such models can be used to predict future events. Ideally, the presentation would be oral and backed by a PowerPoint that explains findings and guides further conversation.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Huntley 327

10:30am

Narratives: Elizabeth I’s Lover, etc. — Huntley 322
Worse than a Thousand Deaths: The Afterlife of Robert Devereux, Second Earl of Essex, in Seventeenth Century Drama (Paper)
Ben Gee, Hannah Palmatary, Cecelia Weingart
This project, initiated under Professor Hank Dobin's guidance in the summer of 2015 alongside fellow prospective panelist Hannah Palmatary, contains a detailed look at the legacy of Robert Devereux in all kinds of literature since his ignominious execution in 1601 for rebellion against his sometime romantic interest, England's Queen Elizabeth I. As we studied and researched various "representations" of the Earl in art, literature, and eventually film and other medias as well, we incorporated these representations into a digital timeline that neatly chronicles the chronological and typological progression of works that impacted the Earl's multifarious and contradictory legacy - sometimes a fool or a ruffian, even a villain, and other times a heroic remnant of a chivalrous past put to rest with his downfall. The Earl's fascinating life and even more compelling afterlife are both examined in my study, which focuses on seventeenth century dramatic portrayals of Essex.

The Essex Timeline: A Thousand Times Worse Than Death (Digital Story)
Cecelia Weingart, Hannah Palmatary, Ben Gee
My focus within the project has been the performance of a play on February 7, 1601. By reading scholarly essays and watching film and television representations of the event, I explored the historical questions of the intentions behind the performance and the identity of the play.

Ambiguous Essex - Examining Morality in Children's Literature (Digital Story)
Hannah Palmatary, Ben Gee, Cecelia Weingart
The Earl of Essex’s dramatic rise to power and epic fall from grace in Queen Elizabeth I's court mark the Earl as one of the most fascinating characters in British history. Essex possessed a mercurial and ambitious personality which fueled his amorous, yet volatile relationship with Elizabeth. Given the dynamic nature of the Essex story and the man himself, Essex has been the subject of many imaginative historical and fictitious retellings. However, the characterization of Essex in these retellings differs drastically—from evil antagonist to loving hero, from laughingstock to gentleman to madman. Within the genre of children’s literature, the Earl’s ambiguous nature becomes crystallized, often taking the form of a morally abstruse character. This project aims to examine the moral uncertainty in representations of Essex in children’s literature and discuss the potential for and value of this type of character to enhance moral development in children.

The Storm Inside (Creative Writing)
Andross Blenman
I intend to read a short story I have written about a teenage boy. He is an outcast at his school and feels misunderstood everyone around him, even his family. After his latest incident at school he is once again betrayed another friend. This most recent betrayal is the final straw, and leads to the boy to discover a means to wreak dark vengeance upon those that have hurt him. This weapon is perhaps the most globally destructive force in the history of mankind, something no other human has been capable of taming in their life time: the weather. However, we shall see that even the destructive power of the weather pales in comparison to the storm that rages inside each and everyone of thus. Especially this boy.

AUGUST (Creative Writing)
Win Gustin
Written over the course of one month, AUGUST is an original four-part short story detailing four dinners with four different people, each with the implication that each person will never be seen again. Each part represents a different significant other calling back memories from months and years prior, and each part is its own ride of a mixture of bittersweet emotion, all written from my point of view compounded with memories of the past. The project is an exploration into sexuality, loss, acceptance, passionate emotion, and regret.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Huntley 322

10:30am

Pregnancy and Poverty: Here and Abroad — Huntley 235
The Roles of Father and Mother in Rural Appalachian Society: A Study of Grundy County, TN (Paper)
Alice Bradford
Through the Leyburn grant, I conducted field work (including interviews and observation) in Grundy County, TN to analyze family life in rural Appalachia, specifically how the roles of mothers and fathers contributed to family stability, in a low-income, nearly-impoverished, low-employment region of the southern United States. I submitted my research (in full paper format) to Professor Goluboff, which included my original background research on Appalachia, statistical data, interview notes from 5 families, and a number of analyses and conclusions that I drew. I experienced many setbacks during my first attempt at field work (from which I have learned a great deal), and I am immensely passionate about this topic, as I have spent much of my life in rural Tennessee, and as I hope to potentially build upon this topic in a senior Anthropology capstone.

Time to Push: An Ethnographic Study of Reactions to Socially Unsanctioned Pregnancies in Gozo, Malta (Paper)
Stephanie Chung
This paper presents the results of an ethnographic study conducted over a period of three weeks in Gozo, Malta concerning responses toward socially unsanctioned pregnancies and forms of motherhood. Gozo is the second largest of the populated islands of the archipelago nation in which the Catholic religion has traditionally held strong influence. In Gozo, socially unsanctioned pregnancies fall into two major, although not exclusive, categories: teenaged pregnancies and pregnancies occurring outside the bounds of matrimony. The ethnographic research was done primarily through semi-formal and informal interviews with a variety of informants throughout the island of Gozo. The results gathered during this research drive me to suggest that while there are high levels of social stigma directed at women with socially unsanctioned pregnancies from both institutions and individuals, some attitudes might be changing as socially unsanctioned pregnancies become more common.

Do Beer Taxes Affect Birth Rates Among Teens and Young Women in the U.S.? (Paper)
Lizzy Stanton
Alcohol abuse among young people and underage drinking in the U.S. lead to many adverse outcomes, including unintended pregnancy. One potential way to limit alcohol abuse – and therefore its negative outcomes – is to raise the price of beer. I therefore use beer tax as a proxy for beer consumption, with a higher beer tax being associated with lower beer consumption. I build on previous literature by using state-level data to investigate the relationship between beer taxes and pregnancy outcomes. The paper contributes to the literature by providing the first analysis of the effect of beer taxes on overall birth rates, as well as number of births by race, marital status, and age of the father for 15-19 and 20-24 year old mothers. Results are forthcoming. 

UnFeres of Them All (Paper)
Ann Cox
My research paper, UnFeres of Them All: Holding a Mirror up to the Genesis Test in Prenatal Injury Claims, explores the real life consequences of applying a military immunity doctrine to the modern military force, especially female service members.  My solution suggests that the answer lies not in adopting a new standard or rejecting the Feres doctrine, but simply returning to the doctrine’s original rationales.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Huntley 235

10:30am

Psychological Effects: Body-Image, Pronouns, and Therapy — Huntley 221
Pro-Thin Bias in the Media and Anti-Fat Prejudice (Paper)
Kate Lesch, Katherine Worthington
The present study investigates the relationship between pro-thin bias in the media and anti-fat prejudice. Past research has focused on how images of thin models affects women’s self-esteem and body satisfaction. Currently, data are being collected from sixty undergraduate, female students at Washington and Lee University. Participants are asked to view one of two sets of advertisements. In the experimental condition, they view three images of advertisements featuring very thin models along with two neutral images. In the control condition, the participants view five neutral, product-related images. After viewing the advertisements, participants will be asked to complete Crandall’s (1994) Anti-Fat Attitudes Questionnaire. The results of this study will provide insight on how the pro-thin bias in the media not only affects women’s views of themselves but also their views of other people.

Intelligence and Adult Health: The Relationship between Achievement Test Scores and Adult Obesity Rates (Paper)
Parker Pitts, Izzy Swanson, Carter Ware
This paper examines the relationship between adolescent intelligence and adult health. We suggest natural intelligence, rather than education alone, contributes to better health as an adult. To test the effect of adolescent intelligence and test scores on adult health outcomes, we will use obesity (BMI at age 20 and above) as a quantitative measure of health in adulthood and ACT/SAT scores as a measure of adolescent intelligence. We propose ACT and SAT scores as an informative proxy of both natural intelligence and achievement among the United States population, an explanatory variable relatively under-researched in health economics.

"I can't believe what you did!" The Effectiveness of Conveying Anger with Pictograms (Paper)
Audrey Dangler, Kelsey Jervis
This study examined the role of pictograms in conveying anger in a text message. Secondary goals included exploring the difference between the effects of emojis and emoticons and how the level of ambiguity affects the presence of a pictogram. Ninety participants from a small, liberal arts undergraduate university were recruited (74 female, 15 male, 1 other) and completed a questionnaire measuring the ratings of anger of the sender of a text message. Results indicated that a text with a pictogram was rated as angrier than a text without a pictogram. An interaction effect was present for ambiguity and pictogram types. For ambiguous messages, texts with a pictogram were rated as angrier than texts without a pictogram. However, for explicit messages, no significant difference was found. Extending past research to include angry pictograms, this study further demonstrated that pictograms aid the interpretation of computer-mediated communication, but more so for ambiguous messages.

Perceptions of Gender Neutral Pronouns (Paper)
Samantha Sharman, Jake Burnett, Alex Dolwick
The purpose of the current study is to examine the effects of gender neutral pronouns on processing speed. Previous research has examined the use of the singular pronouns “they/their.” The current research focuses on both the use of “they/their” and another gender neutral pronoun set, “ze/zir,” in comparison to gendered pronouns in order to see which type of pronoun is processed with the most ease. Currently, we are in the process of recruiting and testing participants. Participants read three paragraphs that differ on type of pronoun used. We will analyze processing speed and ease of use for both gendered and gender neutral pronouns. With recent increases in the number of people identifying as gender neutral, it is important to learn more about societal perceptions of language use.

The My Voice Project (Paper)
Catherine Latour
Society suffers from social anxiety in the form of public speaking. In my creative work, The My Voice Project, I evaluate the significance of being a confident public speaker and how our nation’s youth is largely deprived of the opportunity to become socially confident speakers. To combat social anxiety, I founded The My Voice Project, an elevenweek program that gives children the confidence they need to stand up for themselves. Over the past three summers I have developed a curriculum bound in a fifty-page manual. Currently, I am working to expand this project because of the significance it could have in empowering others. Through my presentation, I plan to describe my motivation, the project and the current results. In the future, I hope to determine the outcome of a more self-confident nation as I evaluate what I must do to further implement and how society will benefit from this program.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Huntley 221

10:30am

Race, Equal Protection, and ‘the Other’ — Ruscio CGL 115
Racial Bias in News Coverage on Poverty in America: How Mass Communicated Stereotypes Influence the Public’s Perception of the Poor (Paper)
Emma Derr
Many scholarly sources have demonstrated that the media is largely responsible for how people perceive the poor, particularly in the context of racial bias. I seek to explain in more detail what this perception is and how it is perpetrated and exaggerated by the media. I also examine why people accept this perception. By analyzing many studies over long periods of time, I found that the media’s overrepresentation of urban African-Americans in discussions of poverty and emphasis of the undeserving poor has perpetuated negative racial stereotypes. These stereotypes strongly influence the public’s opinions of welfare. This biased media coverage is not effectively educating the public and is impacting public policy. In conclusion, there is a pressing need in American media to disseminate an accurate representation of its impoverished population.

The Constitutionality of Racial Safe Spaces (Paper)
Andy Blanco
I'd like to present on my law review note topic: the constitutionality of racial safe spaces. The 2016 academic year has seen the mushrooming of racial safe spaces: housing units, classes, and events at American universities that are segregated based on race. It's my view that this practice violates the equal protection clause. My presentation will be confined to describing the new phenomenon, the existing law, and my analysis under the Equal Protection clause. I would be interested in feedback on the legal analysis as well as hearing what any member of the university thinks about the propriety of this new practice.

Africa Speaks?: Issues of Voice, Race, and Revisionary History in Horror Films (Paper)
Arlette Hernandez
In the Western eye, Africa is more of an idea than a region. The continent is painted with tropes and understood through a lens of inaccuracy. To pull apart such misrepresentation, I analyze three films: The Night of the Sorcerers (1973), Panga (1991), and Dominion: Prequel to the Exorcist (2005). I argue that these films interweave themes of possession, magic, and monsters with a legacy of colonialism, constructing terror from a fear of historical expansion, entrance into African spaces, and interactions with raced bodies. The threat in these films is not the mere existence of blackness, but rather the possibility of contracting blackness. Yet, while these narratives are influenced by a particular history, they also affect a new reality. These films act as a battleground between European and African voices, practicing a form of revisionary history that provides the Other with a form (or at least the opportunity) of agency.

A Neighborhood-Level Assessment of Migration and Concentrated Disadvantage in the City of Miami 1980-2010 (Paper)
John Carmody
This paper assesses the influence of migratory patterns on the concentration of disadvantage in Miami. To gain leverage over this multifactorial relationship, the paper utilizes neighborhood-level analyses. These neighborhood-level assessments segment the city into discretely bound social entities that exert durable effects on individual residents. Establishing boundaries that capture the richly diverse and influential social spaces defined as neighborhoods remains elusive. To account for these limitations, our observational study uses census tracts with careful consideration of historical “neighborhood” affiliations. Ultimately, this paper attempts to capture how migratory patterns in Miami determine shifts in concentrated disadvantage from 1980 to 2010. The design of this paper seeks to tease out the influence of these major migratory movements on the modern distribution of socioeconomic and health-related factors, using indicators of concentrated disadvantage and distribution of colorectal cancer in particular.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Ruscio CGL 115

10:30am

Science and Technique: Past and Present — IQ Center 202A (3D Computer Lab)
Engineering in Medieval Spain through Water (Paper)
Matt Lubas
During Semester Abroad in Alicante, Spain, with funding from John M. Evans fund for international experiences, I met with professors across Spain and visited many historic sites to understand the development in Engineering around the medieval century. This study focused on works in the water supply process, such as Aqueducts, Hydraulic Mills, Dams, types of wells, and some specific works/developments from the Moorish people. It also touches upon the relation of water engineering to geography, peace/war and history.

Argentinian Science against the Cold War Backdrop (1955-1976) (Paper)
Lucy Cespedes
This paper will explore the politicization of Argentinean science and the construction of the country’s scientific and academic community as “dangerous” by successive military governments in the 1955-1966 period. Context will be provided characterizing the “Golden Age” of Argentina’s science in the ‘50s and ‘60s, in sharp contrast to the obscurantism of the ‘70s. This issues can of course be related to a broader context. In particular, Argentina’s scientific policy can be analyzed against the backdrop of US foreign policy towards Latin America. Of special interest is the contact of US science institutions with Argentina.

The Migratory Bird Treaty Act After 100 Years (Paper)
Marta Vazquez
I am writing my law review note about the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and the legal problems that have emerged from its enforcement in the last 100 years. The issue is currently alive because the Circuit Courts disagree over whether the treaty criminalizes "incidental take", which are killings resulting from otherwise legal activities. This has a large impact on industries such as wind, solar and transportation, all of which incur some incidental takes. Despite the confusion over the MBTA's breadth, the Fish and Wildlife Service is proposing rules to authorize incidental take under the MBTA-a bold move considering the Act may not cover incidental take at all. The paper presents interesting issues relating to statute interpretation, environmental law, and administrative law, and of course, there are lots of migratory birds.

Moderators
Speakers

Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
IQ Center 202A (3D Computer Lab)

10:30am

Some Remarkable Individuals and their Meaning — Science Addition G14
Clerking for "God's Grandfather" - Chauncy Belknap's Year with Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr (Paper)
Lizzy Williams
When Chauncey Belknap clerked for Supreme Court Justice Holmes it was 1915-16, and the world of D.C. was alive with magic. Belknap wrote in a journal nearly everyday he clerked, beginning with President Wilson announcing he was remarrying, and covering a world of law, society, and brilliant minds. This summer, we will be publishing the culmination of 2.5 years of research into this diary. My participation in a panel, or a poster presentation would detail the world of 1915-16: legal issues, women's fight for the right to vote, WWI's eruption, and the many characters who went on to shape American life.

A Wonderful Life (Paper)
Alexandra Seymour
Even those we believe to be ordinary can lead extraordinary lives. This is something I realized as I completed my final project for Journalism 318 last semester, which was a profile of my father's life. Indeed, at 81 years old, he exemplifies strength and resilience. Listening to him recount his life story showed me in greater detail than I ever had been given before what a remarkable human being he is. Now, I'd like to share his colorful story with the W&L community.

USS Gambier Bay (Paper)
Jackie Clifford
This journalism piece is the account of one soldier's experience on the USS Gambier Bay, an escort carrier that sank during WWII in the Pacific theater. Researched through existing literature about the sinking of the ship and an interview with the solder, this literary journalism piece chronicles Albert Kubichek's experience as a seaman during the war and the battle that sank the ship.

J. D. B. De Bow: Promoter of the New South (Paper)
Polli Noskova
James Dunwoody Brownson De Bow, the editor of De Bow's Review (1846-1848), is best known for his work in promoting southern agriculture, industry and sectionalism. Branded one of the southern fire-eaters, a cohort of magazine and newspaper editors and writers best known for their staunch defense of slavery, but largely forgotten because of the didactic nature of his work, De Bow created an economic program for the South which became the basis of the New South Creed. This was a slogan promoted in the 1870 and 1880s urging the South to modernize, embrace industry, northern capital and immigration, all while maintaining a distinctive southern culture.

"God is the Perfect Comprehension:" Zelda Fitzgerald's Deposition in Context (Paper)
Caroline Todd
This paper was the result of a fall term independent study with Professor King in the art history department. For this paper, I examined the religious artwork of Zelda Fitzgerald -- wife of F. Scott -- and its context within her own biography as well as other twentieth century art movements and primary documents including an unpublished essay held in the Princeton University Special Collections department. Most specifically, I applied this analysis to her 1945 work The Deposition, a watercolor depicting Christ's descent from the cross. The field of Fitzgerald art historical scholarship is otherwise untapped, as no other literary critics or art historians have examined Fitzgerald's work in detail, especially that completed after her husband's death. With that in mind, my project had two goals: one, to pursue a topic with no precedent, and another, to counter fictional notions of the romanticized "Zelda" of pop culture fame.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Science Addition G14

10:30am

The Moral Legacies of Martin Luther King, Jr. — Science Addition 214
Lethal Policing and Just-War: Building an Ethical Framework (Paper)
John Juneau
In this paper, I examine the current happenings of lethal policing in the United States from the perspective of the just-war tradition. Leveraging the principles of jus ad bellum and jus in bello I seek to answer two key questions: Is the use of lethal force by police is morally permissible in general? Is the racially disparate use of lethal force by police, as is the current reality, morally permissible? I find that lethal policing violates several properties of jus ad bellum or more extensive study is required to determine whether they are satisfied. Moreover, a case study of Eric Garner's death suggests that several properties of jus in bello are also violated by racially disparate lethal policing. Finally, I seek to reconcile the framework of just-war with Dr. Martin Luther King's philosophy of personalism in order to make my argument transferable across faithbases.

Innovative God-talk: Martin Luther King Jr., Delores Williams, and Creativity (Paper)
Zach Taylor
African American theologians often draw upon Martin Luther King Jr. as a source in the construction of black theology in the United States. King seems to offer much less, however, to what Delores Williams, a pioneer in womanist theology, calls the survival-quality of life tradition of African American biblical appropriation. I nevertheless contend that when we examine King's theology through a womanist lens, his emphasis on the role of creativity reflects its centrality in womanist thought. Moreover, we also discover in King creative techniques with respect to resistance and biblical hermeneutics that womanist methods build upon and correct, so that we refrain from uncritically advocating redemptive suffering and reject the static and inflexible interpretation of biblical texts. Ultimately, oppression necessitates creativity; the creative techniques of resistance and biblical interpretation are therefore tools used to overcome oppression, evident in the God-talk of King, Williams, and other womanists.

Justice in War: Kingian Philosophy on Contemporary American Conflicts (Paper)
Alex Dolwick
Martin Luther King, Jr. vehemently opposed American involvement in the Vietnam War. His theory on justice in war, while more radical in its opposition to all forms of violence, aligns well with traditional just war theory. These two theories can act as a measuring rod for determining wartime morality, and recent American involvements in the Middle East have failed these tests of justice. Instead of going into the War on Terror with just causes, the George W. Bush administration led a charge into Iraq and Afghanistan with sparse evidence that these wars would truly combat terrorism. And instead of fighting this unjust war justly, the American government exploited the Iraqi people for economic benefit while condoning brutal torture in prisons like Abu Ghraib. Americans must abolish the “us vs. them” approach to foreign policy in order to treat people around the world with the human dignity that King espoused.

Dignity in Housing: Lessons from NYC to Natural Bridge (Digital Story)
Hannah Falchuk
This creative digital presentation would combine lessons from a Shepherd Internship in New York City to insights from Campus Kitchen volunteering in Natural Bridge, Virginia. While this city and town may appear to have few similarities, I would like to draw on what I learned in homeless outreach around the city in application to a low-income retirement home in the Rockbridge County. In both locales, I have learned the challenges to finding and maintaining adequate housing. These challenges only begin with poverty and mental illness. The approach to helping people in either is likewise consistent across demographics: starting a conversation. This presentation will use anecdotes and information from my summer and school-year experiences to urge people to recognize the individuality of those often described in broad blanket terms and to recognize the unique and often-overlooked challenges of mental illness, which extend far beyond NYC and Natural Bridge.

Income Inequalities and the American Dream in Hollywood (Paper)
Bobo Bors
Income inequalities are soaring in the US, but the average American still seems to have a surprisingly optimistic view of economic mobility. Despite the well-documented inequality disparities in the US, Americans tend to doggedly believe in a myth as old as their country: the American Dream. The stubbornness with which these realities are dealt with is partially explained by the deceitful influence of Hollywoodian cinematography, which constantly reaffirms the supremacy of the American Dream. “Rags-to-riches” stories such as The Pursuit of Happyness are one type of such stories which perpetuate the idea that in the US all opportunities are always accessible to perseverant and moral individuals. It is necessary to understand how the social mobility ideas that are promised by the American dream are communicated in such an articulate fashion that they still remain characteristic for the country’s identity despite contradicting empirical evidence.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Science Addition 214

10:30am

Trumping the Vote — Parmly 307
Virginia's Voter Identification Law and the Potential Disenfranchisement of Transgender Voters (Paper)
Sarah Stovall
Over the past twenty years, Virginia’s state legislature has enacted increasingly strict voter identification laws. Prior to 1996, a Virginia voter only needed to state their full name and address in order to be qualified to vote. As of 2013, a Virginia voter must present some form of government-issued photo-identification. Critics of strict voteridentification laws argue that photo-identification requirements tend to disenfranchise minority and economically-disadvantaged voters, but less attention has been paid to the impact that photo-identification requirements have on transgender voters. This article explores whether Virginia’s photo-identification requirement creates barriers to the ballot box for transgender voters. For instance, transgender voters face increased difficulty in acquiring a valid photo-identification that accurately reflects their gender identity and transgender voters may be more likely to experience intimidation or discrimination at the polls. This article also considers the availability of legal remedies for transgender voting discrimination.

How and Why the Stock Markets Got Trumped: An Analysis of Stock Markets’ Reaction to the 2016 Presidential Election (Paper)
Edward Stroud
The 2016 election of Donald Trump as President was undoubtedly a surprise result. During the months and days leading up to the election pundits and polls picked Clinton as the ultimate victor, even while the race did begin to tighten. Stock markets also seemed inclined to support this sentiment. Yet, as it became evident the morning of November 9th, Donald Trump would become 45th President. Markets reacted strongly as this realization set in. Pre-election expectations as well as immediate post-election reactions were based off of information available to markets at the time. Markets viewed a Clinton presidency as a more favorable financial environment than a Trump presidency for a variety of reasons. However, markets have since rallied behind the Trump victory as they grasp what his presidency and its policies could mean for the economy. Thus, the efficient markets hypothesis is useful in understanding pre-election market expectations and post-election reactions.

Anatomy of a Swing State: What 2016 Means for the Future of Battleground Politics in North Carolina (Paper)
William Rhyne
This paper examines the shifting political atmosphere in North Carolina from the Jesse Helms-Jim Hunt era to the election of Donald Trump. Minted for the first time as a swing state in 2008, the paper questions North Carolina's status as a swing state following the 2016 election and offers analysis as to the future political headwinds in the state.

Diagnosing Political Ignorance and How it Contributed to the Rise of Donald Trump (Paper)
Austin Piatt
There is ample data to show that education levels had a big influence on how people voted in this election – far bigger than in the past. Though education levels are not solely indicative of political ignorance, they share similarities. It is noncontroversial amongst political thinkers to say that American citizens are politically ignorant, what is disputed is whether citizens can avail themselves of certain epistemological “shortcuts” that allow them to sufficiently inform themselves for an election. This paper will also examine whether these shortcuts suffice in informing voters. Ultimately, I argue that political ignorance played a major role in deciding how people would vote in the 2016 presidential election and, in order to fully understand this election’s results, we must critically evaluate four other considerations: the education gap, the reliability of shortcuts, the exploitation of political ignorance, and the consequences of replacing pure political ignorance with flawed voter knowledge.

Communication Technology Revolutions and their Impact on Presidential Elections
Ashley Faulkner
My paper compared communication technology revolutions and their impacts on elections. I looked at the age of television with Eisenhower and Kennedy and social media with Obama and Trump.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Parmly 307

10:30am

Women in Culture — Ruscio CGL 212
Motivations to Use Psychological Therapies: A Cross Cultural Comparison (Paper)
Batsheva Honig
In the United States, for many, seeking psychological help is akin to admitting that they have a mental illness (Mendoza, 2015). In contrast, the prevalence of psychological therapies is widely accepted in Argentina (Alonso & Klinar, 2014). In comparing the two countries, we can gain a better understanding of the needs of young women and how culture influences attitudes towards mental health services. Previous research attributes stigma and cultural differences to the use and avoidance of psychological therapies (Digiuni et al., 2013). More work is needed to understand what motivates young women to use therapy. The current study investigates personal and norm-based motivations in the U.S. and Argentina. A model, wherein stigma acts as a moderator between the relationship of motivation and openness to therapy, is proposed. This study will provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of psychological therapy use, allowing for better understanding of mental health and therapy cross-culturally.

Music and Women: The Implications of Disparaging and Empowering Music (Paper)
Jake Burnett
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the impact that music, specifically lyrics in music, can affect women's self-esteem and identification as women. The current literature indicates that there are clear detriments associated with disparaging lyrics and objectifying images in music videos, but little research has previously been done on how empowering lyrics can be beneficial. The current study expands the research by including positive stimuli in addition to the customary negative stimuli. Participants are placed in one of 6 conditions across two variables. They listen to disparaging music, neutral music, or empowering music and either read along with the lyrics or exclusively listen. After listening, they complete a portion of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the State Self-Esteem Scale, and a modified version of the Collective Self-Esteem Scale. If data are significant, this will have implications for women about the music to which they listen.

Child’s Play: Why Is it Socially Acceptable to Decapitate Barbie? (Paper)
Catherine Simpson
Why do children like to torture their Barbie dolls? Barbie dolls are fashion and appearance focused dolls with unrealistic body proportions; imaginative play with Barbie leads to lower self-esteem and reduced occupational aspirations (Dittmar, Halliwell, & Ives, 2001; Sherman & Zurbriggen, 2014). Previous research suggests that children follow three types of scripts when playing with Barbies: familybased, glamour-based, and anger/torture-based (Kuther, 2004). However, with the relatively recent introduction of more diverse Barbie dolls and Barbie media emphasizing the idea that Barbie can be anything, it's possible that these scripts have changed, making Barbie into a more positive role model. Through focus groups with collegeaged women and pre-teen girls, I've investigated the possible causes of torture-based scripts as well as the prevalence of existing scripts based on Barbie media. Barbie has potential as a role model for girls, and the continued introduction of positive scripts through Barbie media may be beneficial.

Tracing the First Female Federal Circuit Court Judge (Paper)
Jess Winn
In 1934, Judge Florence Ellinwood Allen became the first woman appointed to a federal circuit court judgeship. She had previously served as the first woman justice on the Ohio State Supreme Court. Judge Allen went on to preside over the contentious Tennessee Valley Authority case. But she is still a mysterious figure. This research project focuses on understanding Judge Allen through her law clerks. Law clerks operate behind the scenes in many judges’ chambers. They help their judges by researching the law and drafting opinions. They gain a unique perspective on the judge. Judge Allen had several clerks throughout her tenure on the Sixth Circuit. This project involves finding her clerks or their relatives and collecting stories and other historical materials about Judge Allen. Then, I will write a piece about Judge Allen for an anthology of articles about judicial clerk.

Marguerite Duras's New Woman (Paper)
Maddi Boireau
The works of author Marguerite Duras have had an outstanding influence on today’s society and were a major addition to second wave feminism. Second wave feminism tackled issues ranging from sexuality, the workplace, and reproductive rights. Duras not only breaks women’s social mold but also creates a whole new narrative space for a woman to exist. In Duras's novels L'Amant, Les yeux bleus cheveux noirs, and L'amant de la Chine du nord, Marguerite Duras breaks the socially constructed definition of a woman and writes a new category for her. To prove this, I analyze four elements throughout all three novels: power and control gender binary; clothing and gender performance; Duras's undoing of marriage; and language.


Friday March 17, 2017 10:30am - 11:45am
Ruscio CGL 212

12:00pm

Keynote Luncheon (Registration Required) – Evans Hall
Marlon West
Head of Effects Animation at Walt Disney Animation Studios
MARLON WEST (Head of Effects Animation) started his professional animation career producing educational films for Encyclopedia Britannica in Chicago in 1985 after graduating from Columbia College. In 1989 he followed his dreams and moved to animation central, Los Angeles, where he started with freelance work on special effects for music videos, television commercials, and motion pictures. Marlon joined Walt Disney Animation Studios in 1993 as an effects animator on The Lion King. His task was to add the dust cloud effects to the wildebeest stampede scene in The Lion King.
Subsequent to this auspicious start, Marlon went on to work on effects animation in features such as Pocahontas, Hunchback of Notre Dame, Hercules, Mulan, Tarzan, Fantasia/2000, and The Emperor’s New Groove. On Pocahontas Marlon was part of the team responsible for the storm sequence at the beginning of the film. He also designed and animated the effects for Grandmother Willow, Pocahontas’s aged advisor. In The Hunchback of Notre Dame’s dramatic climax scene, Marlon was responsible for the molten lead effects. In Hercules, he was responsible for bringing to life the hot-headed Hades and the destructive Titans. The fire on the shipwreck in Tarzan, as well as much of the lightning in the show down between Tarzan and Clayton, were all Marlon’s handiwork.
Marlon’s first taste of administration was as an Assistant Effects Supervisor on the “Rhapsody in Blue” sequence of Fantasia/2000. From there Marlon went on to serve as Head of Effects on Atlantis: The Lost Empire and Home on the Range. As Lead on Atlantis: The Lost Empire, Marlon designed most of the effects. He was also responsible for casting and keying all traditional and digital effects and worked closely with the Directors and Art Director to create the “comic book” look of the movie.
After transitioning to computer graphics animated films, Marlon worked as a digital artist animating special effects on Chicken Little, and then as an Effects Animator on Meet the Robinsons. Marlon helped to usher the return of traditional 2-D animation (as well as the cartoon short form) to the studio with his work as Artistic Coordinator and Visual Effects Supervisor on How to Hook Up Your Home Theater. Marlon recently completed The Princess and the Frog and Winnie the Pooh. In this same vein, Marlon worked on Paperman, and served as Head of Effects Animation on Feast, both shorts that
won Academy Awards. In addition, Marlon was Head of Effects Animation for Frozen, which received the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Marlon served as Head of Effects Animation on Moana. Recently, the Effects group that he led in the making of Moana received the award for “Outstanding Achievement, Animated Effects in an Animated Production” at the IFSA’s 44th Annie Awards.
Always a music fan, he has worked as a DJ in various venues and styles. A native of St. Louis, Marlon resides with his daughter and thousands of CDs and records in Glendale, California.

Speakers
avatar for Marlon West

Marlon West

Head of Effects Animation, Walt Disney Animation Studios
MARLON WEST (Head of Effects Animation) started his professional animation career producing educational films for Encyclopedia Britannica in Chicago in 1985 after graduating from Columbia College. In 1989 he followed his dreams and moved to animation central, Los Angeles, where he started with freelance work on special effects for music videos, television commercials, and motion pictures. Marlon joined Walt Disney Animation Studios in 1993 as... Read More →



Friday March 17, 2017 12:00pm - 2:00pm
Evans Hall

2:15pm

The Musical Power of Poetry - Great Hall, Science Center — Great Hall, Science Center
Performed by members of the W&L Choral Program. Shane M. Lynch, Conductor.

Cantatrici
Soprano I: Olivia Brister, Tori Hester, Camilla Higgins, Arianna Jepsen, Mary Koepele, Madeleine Lucas, Elizabeth Thompson, Annie Walker, Xinyue (Tracy) Wang, Cecelia Weingart, Xiaoxia Yin,
Soprano II: Hannah Austin, Claire Conarroe, Erin Fykes, Kathryn Huntley, Margaret Kallus, Virginia McGhee, Olivia Shen, Caroline Trammell, Elizabeth Underwood, Amberly Wang, Nuoya Zhou,
Alto I: Marianna Baird, Audrey Dangler, Campbell DeNatale, Jiwon Kim, Rose Maxwell, JoAnn Michel, Mary Helen Powell, Abigail Sterns, Yi (Laura) Wang,
Alto II: Cindy Gadley, Kathryn Gerbo, Jordan Goldstein, Hailey Glick, Katherine Ingram, Alexus Jordan, Rachel Rothken, Olivia Shaves, Ekaterina Tsvetkova,

Men’s Glee Club
Tenor I: Saimon Islam, Nick Mauer
Tenor II: Axel Box, Ben Gee, Dalton Greenwood, Luke Powell
Bass I: Christofer Chang, Yavuz Durmaz, Nguyen Kieru, Weld Robinson, Khang Truong
Bass II: Ruinan (Alan) Liu, Josh Dolan, Mike Smitka, Jeremy Unterborn, Daniel Wetterhahn

The University Singers
Soprano I: Hannah Dewing, Camilla Higgins, Laura Noker, Hannah Palmatary, Elizabeth Schmitz, Virginia Wallace
Soprano II: Hannah Austin, Kate Dalia, Claire Hoffert, Kathryn Huntley, Julia Ornaf, Caroline Todd, Alison Masson
Alto I: Jordan Goldstein, Lauren Hoffman, Jane Kim, Lauren Kim, Maren Lundgren, Anna Milewski
Alto II: Hyunah Choi, Laney Fay, Olivia Howell, Reem Kandil, Elaina Prillaman, Olivia Shaves, Megan Steel
Tenor I: Andrew Agrippina, Dana Gary, Stephen Mitchell, Tyler Wenger
Tenor II: Axel Box, John Crum, Ryan Curto, Dalton Greenwood, Jim Grant, LeGrand Northcutt, Logan Wilson
Bass I: Spencer Borwick, Nathan Brewer, Jake Burnett, Josh Duemler, Coleman Johnson, Joe Kimbell, Chris Tran
Bass II: Jesse Chang, Alex Farley, Jamie Hayes, Austin Jennings, Cole Schott, Jeremy Unterborn, Ben Whedon

Friday March 17, 2017 2:15pm - 2:45pm
Great Hall, Science Center

2:15pm

SSA T-Shirt Pickup
Did you sign up for a T-shirt? If so, come pick it up in the Elrod Commons Living Room between 2:15 and 4:15 pm! 

Friday March 17, 2017 2:15pm - 4:15pm
Elrod Commons Living Room

2:59pm

Visual Arts — Huntley Hall
Artists will talk about their work from 3:00-3:45.

Che Vita da Cani (It’s a Dog’s Life)
Olivia Kubli
In the spring of 2016, I spent five weeks in Italy observing life there and taking note of certain cultural differences. One difference I found particularly interesting was the seemingly ubiquitous presence of man's best friend. In the United States, social standards and rules prevent people from traveling with their canine companions into stores, cafes, and on public transportation. In Italy, however, dogs meld into daily life. Dogs can be found shopping with their owners in a Louis Vuitton store, catching a Venetian vaporetto with their family, sitting in the arms of their person as he has a late night drink the local bar, or lying faithfully next to their master on a street corner as she plays the guitar for tips. Dogs, people, and rich, ancient history coexist in the wonderful, dynamic medley that is Italy.

Citizenship and Identity
Iman Messado
A watercolor series exploring ideas of citizenship and identity.

Duality
Amberly Wang
This work is dedicated to a close friend. My friend a multi-personality disorder. Because this other personality does not exist in the physical world, I wanted to document this other person as a record that they existed, if only in the mind of another person. This piece plays on opposites: male and female, black and white, upright and inverted, day and night. In many ways, my friend and the personality are opposites. They are completely different and autonomous from each other, yet they are still a part of one whole. I leave it to the viewer to contemplate which side is for my friend, and which side is for the personality.

I. 
Brianna Osaseri

III. 
Brittany Osaseri

II. & IV.
Brittany Osaseri, Brianna Osaseri
Since both of us aspire to be Medical Illustrators, the goal of this collaborative project was to set a foundation for where we stood at creating that kind of work with our own personal touch.

Gaze of the Harmattan
Amirah S. Ndam Njoya
My artwork aims to explore the space between the portrait and the frame. Often portraiture is a painting of an individual staring straight into the camera or the painter. The space surrounding the figure, is usually plain--a landscape, or sometimes dark hues. In Gaze of the Harmattan, I explore the space between the individual and the frame using African textile patterns. The patterns sometimes engulf the subject or become the subject. In a way, they erase the boundaries between the human and the background and in the end both worlds, background and individual, coexist interchangeably in the same dimension.

Growing Up
Ryan Brink
I have always had a fascination with the connection between memories, thoughts, and emotions with specific locations. This is a topic which I attempt to explore with the four part series "Growing Up." Each painting is an abstracted map of a location with which I associate very strong feelings and memories of growing up. While each work isn't necessarily centered on these locations, I have selected the compositions in order to create the dynamic sense of feeling and emotion that comes with the very active and engaging method of painting. The locations mapped in each are Door County WI, Minocqua WI, Milwaukee WI, and Iron Lake MI, each of which I associate with very strong memories of family and of growing up. The works are all acrylic on canvas with multiple layers making up each painting.

Guo Zao
Olivia Howell, Wan Wei
This documentary offers a glimpse of the unique breakfast culture in Wuhan, China. Tourists from all over Asia visit Wuhan to order a dish known as 'hot and dry noodles.' This spicy breakfast fare is just one of many regional dishes that sparks interests and excites the taste buds. This film introduces Wuhan as a city, illustrates the morning meal scene, investigates the local dishes, and explores the effects of Western fast food restaurants on timeworn breakfast traditions.

HERstory in Motion
Audrey Dangler
The journey—every moment counts. It’s not just Point A to Point B; it’s what happens in-between, the getting there, the expectations, the sights, the smells, and the bumps in the road. Life is a journey, and we only get to live one moment at a time. While in Italy, I focused my attention on each moment of my journey, not allowing the countryside to blur by unnoticed while I anticipate the destination. I recognize each mundane, ordinary moment. With pen to page, I create these ‘motion maps’ with the transportation dictating the movement of each mark. I want to capture the motion of the in-between places, the moments we often forget to be present for, so busy waiting for what is coming next. What about right now?

JOWL Collaborative- moneysofasnacks
Olivia Sisson, Jack Blair, Wilson Miller, Leigh Ann Beavers
This installation and performance art piece will be a site specific installation that will be up for the entirety of the SSA Friday. The piece will consist of several shelves with jars full of individually wrapped snacks. A sofa on a platform will invite viewers to sit, enjoy, and share the space and time. This piece is meant to extend good will and art to the community with a bit of humor and light heartedness. We hope to make the Lykes Atrium space and the art housed there more welcoming and accessible to the university and larger Lexington communities. Items that can be taken from the installation such as the snacks, prints, and other art materials will also be on the platform. The experiential quality of the piece as well as photo documentation will document the piece's existence in the atrium space after the show ends.

Landscape #1 & Landscape #2
Justin Wodicka
When I have the occasion to pick up a brush without too much guilt, watercolors have offered me a welcome respite over the past three years of law school. There is something about having to acknowledge the inability of maintaining complete control over the movement of water on paper that puts the stress and competition of law school in perspective. Because the true color of a brushstroke is revealed only when dry, it is a medium that requires the artist to trust his or her abilities. Watercolor painting is intensely meditative. It is not like acrylic or ink, where a person can finish an area before moving on; the best work is created by slowly adding darker layers of color, pushing the levels of depth and detail progressively further, hoping the end will eventually reveal itself.

Route 60
Alice Cannon
A close look at the landscape on the route between Lexington and Buena Vista reveals a number of old buildings, largely empty of the businesses and industries they once housed. There is something intriguing about these timeworn structures. The rusted sides, the boarded up windows, the cinderblocks piled outside all hint at the stories of these sites. And for an area so rich in history one can almost envision that these buildings unassumingly stand as historical markers in their own right, complementing the better-known history of this place.

Stemming from an interest in architecture and an appreciation for Lexington and the surrounding area, Route 60 seeks to establish a sense of this area through sites that may have been forgotten or overlooked. I employ oil paint and charcoal on canvas to depict structures spotted from Route 60 - both the abandoned ones and the iconic ones still in use.

Succulent Garden
Grace Bowen
This piece is designed to resemble a succulent garden in which twenty succulents are planted in close proximity to each other. I was fascinated by the varying types, colors, textures and shapes of succulents and wanted to focus on capturing these differences. Each 4x4 block of wood is painted with different styles and color schemes to highlight the array of succulents that exist in the environment. 


Untitled #1 & Untitled #2
Justin Wodicka
These pieces were part of a larger study that explored how color and form could change with distance. A person's perception of a color changes depending on adjacent colors. In these two works, I wanted to overload the viewer's senses with color combinations, but balance that commotion with empty space on the periphery of the canvas. This in turn gives shape to the chaos, forcing the viewer to see a single form, and avoiding muddiness with clean lines, repetition of shape, and mathematical precision.



Friday March 17, 2017 2:59pm - 4:15pm
Huntley Hall

3:00pm

*Map of Poster Sessions — Leyburn
All posters will be on display from 3:00-4:15 pm. Authors of even-numbered easels will be present with their posters from 3:40-4:15 pm. Authors of odd-numbered easels will be present with their posters from 3:00-3:35 pm.



Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 01: Is the crayfish species Orconectes ozarkae native or introduced to the James River Basin in Virginia?
Previous work in our lab has identified the presence of Orconectes ozarkae in the James River basin. This species was previously only documented in the Ozarks of Missouri and Arkansas. This raises the question of whether this species is native or introduced in Virginia. We extensively sampled sites in Virginia and the Ozark region to determine whether this species is introduced or native. This has been accomplished via sequencing and comparison of the COI and NAD2 genes. Our work suggests the identification of this species as introduced, which may indicate the need for control or extirpation strategies. We have also aimed to determine the geographical origin of Orconectes ozarkae, for which we have a preliminary hypothesis. Ultimately, the findings will allow for furthering of the taxonomic relationships among different crayfish species and improve existing databases containing this information, while providing the necessary knowledge to manage the health of freshwater ecosystems.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 02: Health Literacy in Relation to Treatment Adherence Among Type 2 Diabetes Patients from Romania
Diabetes is one of the most psychologically demanding chronic diseases, with 95% of its management being performed by the patient. Furthermore, diabetes patients with low health literacy possess less knowledge about their self-management behaviors and adhere less to treatment plans. In Romania, diabetics comprise 11.6% of the population, with diagnoses increasing annually. Therefore, this study aims to explore the ability of diabetes-specific health outcomes and treatment adherence to gauge potential health literacy in a sample of type 2 diabetics in Romania. A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was conducted on a sample (n=400) of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes from a clinical setting in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, from April 2015-March 2016. Descriptive statistics characterized the sample in terms of gender, age, income, area of residence, and treatment adherence. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the ability of treatment adherence and diabetes-related health outcomes to gauge health literacy in the sample.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 03: Do RTA-clade spiders possess the same suite of silk genes as orb-web weaving spiders?
The orb-web is an architecturally advanced mechanism. There are conflicting hypotheses as to how two superfamilies, Araneoidea and Deinopoidea are related. The first hypothesis states that Araneoidea and Deinopoidea share a recent common ancestor and that the two superfamilies’ relationship is most accurately described by their morphological characteristics. However, the second hypothesis states that while Araneoidea and Deinopoidea are closely related, Deinopoidea is also sister to the RTA-Clade. Spiders in the RTA-Clade do not spin orb-webs, but have been found to share a significant number of housekeeping genes with Deinopoids. We will use the genes collected from the silk glands to determine what silk proteins are encoded for by the genes from each species. If these protein encoding genes are found in RTA-Clade species and are orthologous to genes collected from Deinopoids and Araneoids, then we will be able to deduce how and when the proteins evolved.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 04: Determining the Range Limits of Peaks of Otter Salamanders
We are studying what could potentially cause the range limits of the Peaks of Otter Salamander, a species only found in a 12km stretch along the Blue Ridge Parkway and no where else in the world. We have been researching Peaks of Otter Salamanders since the fall of 2014 and this summer began a project specifically to determine the factors resulting in their range limits. The results of this study will allow us to determine if their range is expanding or shrinking in the future and help with the conservation of the species.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 05: The Contribution of Bison Dung and Urine to Soil Nitrogen and Phosphorous Pools in Yellowstone National Park
This poster is a culmination of the research that Dr. Hamilton's lab has been doing over the past summer. It shows the impacts of Bison dung, and to some extent Bison urine, on the Nitrogen and Phosphorous levels in soil.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 06: A Possible Conserved Role for SR Protein Kinase in the Regulation of Cell Death
Apoptosis is a growth regulating process in mammals that may be conserved across eukaryotes. While some apoptotic markers, DNA fragmentation and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), appear in yeast, it is unclear whether they indicate stress response or apoptosis. We can use live cell microscopy (LCM) to quantify ROS in yeast grown in stresses. Once ROS appear, cells never bud again, indicating an apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, mammalian SRPK2 may be cleaved; the N-terminus translocates to the nucleus and may induce an apoptotic pathway. Yeast encode the SR protein kinase, Sky1, whose deletion reduces the presence of apoptotic markers compared to wild-type. Under stress, WT cells grow worse than sky1? and better than sky1-overexpression constructs. LCM data comparing ROS are consistent. We investigate Sky1 cleavage using N- and C-terminal fluorescent tags. Determining that these results represent an apoptotic pathway opens the door to using yeast to further probe apoptotic mechanisms._x000D_
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Easel 7: Optic nerve regeneration in Xenopus laevis: intact myelin removal and gene expression_x000D_
Tara Loughery, Matt Bryson, Weldon Furr_x000D_
Amphibians are able to regenerate their optic nerve into adulthood, whereas mammals lose this ability before birth. Here, we explore the role of myelin in optic nerve recovery and whether myelin debris hinders regeneration. Specifically, we crush optic nerves and collect them at various time points up to 210 days post-surgery (dps). Using a line of frogs expressing GFP in retinal ganglion cell axons, we establish a timeline of axonal recovery showing full recovery does not occur until day 210. Preliminary data shows intact myelin is absent in nerve segments distal and proximal to the injury by 7 and 11dps, respectively and was not detected by 210dps. Here we also explore protein expression patterns of ?- synuclein and Uchl1, two factors thought to play a role in optic nerve regeneration. These data will help fill a knowledge gap in understanding the basic mechanisms underlying nerve regrowth and regeneration._x000D_
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Easel 8: Friend or Foe: Manipulating Nestmate Recognition and Olfaction in Carpenter Ants_x000D_
Chris Myers_x000D_
Discriminating between friends and foes is imperative for the survival of social insects like ants, termites, and bees. When friends (nestmates) are together, they often participate in social grooming, group foraging, and food-sharing. When enemies (non-nestmates) are together, they will display context-specific aggression behaviors to protect their colonies. The ant species Camponotus pennsylvanicus uses unique combinations of cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) cues to distinguish between colonies. However, it is debated whether this detection relies on the recognition of nestmates via familiar CHC profiles, or non-nestmates via unfamiliar ones. To address this question, we can manipulate odorant receptor activation as well as individual CHC profiles and observe the resulting changes in social recognition behavior. Using these strategies to modify the aggression behaviors, we hope to provide support toward one model of CHC-based nestmate discrimination._x000D_
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Easel 9: Constant access to snacks from weaning to adulthood in female rats induce early signs of obesity even before weight gain._x000D_
Lauren Arcinas, Gunnar Bowman, Leslie dela Cruz, Mariam Samuel_x000D_
We developed a female snacking rat model to investigate the mechanisms leading to childhood obesity. We hypothesized that constant access to snacks after weaning causes an early onset of metabolic syndrome. Rats received chow only, healthy snacks, or unhealthy snacks (n=8/group), and all received chow and water. Food intake, snack intake, and body weight were monitored daily. Both snacking groups weighed significantly more than chow-fed rats and had larger abdominal fat pads despite eating fewer calories. Leptin challenges showed that all pubertal rats were resistant to leptin’s ability to reduce food intake, and that snacking rats remained resistant to leptin as adults. A glucose tolerance test determined that snacking rats developed insulin resistance as adults. Thus, constant access to snacks induced early onset of metabolic syndrome. In addition, young rats, and probably humans, are vulnerable to snacks from weaning due to inherent leptin resistance that is sustained into adulthood.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 07: Optic nerve regeneration in Xenopus laevis: intact myelin removal and gene expression
Amphibians are able to regenerate their optic nerve into adulthood, whereas mammals lose this ability before birth. Here, we explore the role of myelin in optic nerve recovery and whether myelin debris hinders regeneration. Specifically, we crush optic nerves and collect them at various time points up to 210 days post-surgery (dps). Using a line of frogs expressing GFP in retinal ganglion cell axons, we establish a timeline of axonal recovery showing full recovery does not occur until day 210. Preliminary data shows intact myelin is absent in nerve segments distal and proximal to the injury by 7 and 11dps, respectively and was not detected by 210dps. Here we also explore protein expression patterns of ?- synuclein and Uchl1, two factors thought to play a role in optic nerve regeneration. These data will help fill a knowledge gap in understanding the basic mechanisms underlying nerve regrowth and regeneration.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 08: Friend or Foe: Manipulating Nestmate Recognition and Olfaction in Carpenter Ants
Discriminating between friends and foes is imperative for the survival of social insects like ants, termites, and bees. When friends (nestmates) are together, they often participate in social grooming, group foraging, and food-sharing. When enemies (non-nestmates) are together, they will display context-specific aggression behaviors to protect their colonies. The ant species Camponotus pennsylvanicus uses unique combinations of cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) cues to distinguish between colonies. However, it is debated whether this detection relies on the recognition of nestmates via familiar CHC profiles, or non-nestmates via unfamiliar ones. To address this question, we can manipulate odorant receptor activation as well as individual CHC profiles and observe the resulting changes in social recognition behavior. Using these strategies to modify the aggression behaviors, we hope to provide support toward one model of CHC-based nestmate discrimination.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 09: Constant access to snacks from weaning to adulthood in female rats induce early signs of obesity even before weight gain.
We developed a female snacking rat model to investigate the mechanisms leading to childhood obesity. We hypothesized that constant access to snacks after weaning causes an early onset of metabolic syndrome. Rats received chow only, healthy snacks, or unhealthy snacks (n=8/group), and all received chow and water. Food intake, snack intake, and body weight were monitored daily. Both snacking groups weighed significantly more than chow-fed rats and had larger abdominal fat pads despite eating fewer calories. Leptin challenges showed that all pubertal rats were resistant to leptin’s ability to reduce food intake, and that snacking rats remained resistant to leptin as adults. A glucose tolerance test determined that snacking rats developed insulin resistance as adults. Thus, constant access to snacks induced early onset of metabolic syndrome. In addition, young rats, and probably humans, are vulnerable to snacks from weaning due to inherent leptin resistance that is sustained into adulthood.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 10: Elucidating the anti-quorum sensing compounds in aqueous Rose leaf extracts with Serratia marcescens
Serratia marcescens is a motile, pigmented member of the family Enterobacteriaceae that uses a density-determining process called quorum sensing to regulate motility and pigment production. Aqueous leaf extracts of the Rose bush have been demonstrated to inhibit quorum sensing in a dose-dependent manner in this bacterium. Two quorum sensing regulated phenotypes, swarming, a form of socially coordinated movement, and prodigiosin production, the synthesis of a characteristic red pigment, were used as quorum sensing indicators. Quorum sensing inhibiting agents are of interest both therapeutically and scientifically, as quorum sensing pathways continue to be characterized. The current project focuses on identifying the active compounds in the aqueous Rose extract using thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 11: Identification and biochemical analysis of proteins in cobweb weaving spiders’ gumfoot glue droplets
Spider aggregate gland secretions perform a host of different function among different groups of spiders. In cobweb weaving spiders, aggregate secretions are involved in formation of gumfoot lines. These gumfoot lines function to capture and catapult walking prey into the main web with adhesion to gumfoot glue droplets and catapulting through a spring-like action of the lines. Currently, the proteins comprising the gumfoot glue droplets are unknown, and we are working to identify these proteins using biochemical and spectroscopic methods. Identification of these proteins would provide a beneficial insight into the evolution of spider silk glands, as well as provide a unique perspective on possible biosynthetic glues that could be manufactured from aggregate secretions.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 12: High­Sugar, High Fat Diet Increased Estradiol Surge during Proestrus
It has been well established that a High ­Sugar, High ­Fat (HSHF) diet causes numerous metabolic abnormalities. However, it is unknown whether diet itself plays a crucial role in disrupting pre-­ovulatory hormone levels, leading to reproductive complications. Understanding that the estradiol (E2) surge during proestrus is important for ovulation, we hypothesize that a HSHF diet alters the E2 surge during proestrus, thus causing cycle irregularities. As a result of this study, we concluded that a HSHF diet significantly impacts the reproductive system along with the metabolic system.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 13: Analysis of gene expression in a female rat model of diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease using RNA-sequencing
We have established a diet-induced model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the adult female rat, which we have characterized through RNA-seq, histology, and physiological measurements. Furthermore, we investigated whether peripheral estrogen signaling has affected this disease. We observed a significant effect of both diet and estrogen on animal weight gain. Our high-fat, high-sugar animals demonstrate numerous physiological and histological markers of NAFLD. Additionally, we used RNA purified from liver tissues to quantify global changes in gene expression between our experimental groups through RNA-seq, with the goal of identifying genes that are differentially expressed in the NAFLD induced animals. Interestingly we see the greatest effect on gene expression through the interaction between diet and estrogen. We will be discussing the in-depth, high resolution gene analysis done on the liver tissues as it relates to the induction of this disease.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 14: Cycling Female Rats Are Resistant to Diet Induced Obesity Cognitive Impairments
It has been well established that diet induced obesity can lead to cognitive impairment, however the majority of this research has only been done in male rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of a high fat high sugar diet (HFHS) in cycling female rats. To assess spatial memory, the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) Task was employed. The Open Field (OF) Test was also conducted in order to observe anxiety levels in rats. Interestingly, there was no observed effect in either of these tasks that suggested obese female rats fare worse than control rats, regardless of cycles. This is in contrast with other studies that have used these tasks to show cognitive deficits occurring in male rats. This may suggest that the female rats are protected from memory impairment due to diet induced obesity.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 15: Western-Style Diet Differentially Impacts Neuroanatomy of Female and Male Rats
Studies demonstrating associations between diet-induced obesity and cognitive impairment have primarily utilized male subjects. Nevertheless, estrogens’ effects on neuron structure suggest the importance of exploring sex differences in the outcomes of obesogenic diets. The present study examined the effect of a Western-style Diet (WSD) on dendritic complexity of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. All females were ovariectomized (OVX); half were implanted with a slow-release 17 ß-estradiol pellet (OVX+E). Rats were terminated following a ten-week diet exposure, and brains were removed and prepared with Golgi-Cox method. Stained neurons were imaged and digitally reconstructed. Results demonstrated WSD-fed OVX+E rats exhibited significantly reduced dendritic branches and terminal tips in the entorhinal cortex (EC), and decreased average dendritic length in the hippocampus compared to control-fed counterparts. Sholl analysis revealed WSD reduced neuronal complexity in the EC of OVX+E rats and in the hippocampus of male and OVX rats, suggesting differential susceptibility to diets.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 16: High-fat high-sugar diet induces polycystic ovary syndrome in a rodent model
A clear association exists between obesity and PCOS, but the exact nature of this relationship remains unexplained. The primary symptoms of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Most animal models induce PCOS via androgen treatments, which fail to address underlying causes of the disease and to reproduce key metabolic features such as hyperinsulinemia. Here, we present a novel rodent model of diet-induced obesity that recapitulates metabolic and reproductive phenotypes of human PCOS. Rats fed a high-fat high-sugar (HFHS) diet developed metabolic impairment, polycystic ovaries, and irregular estrous cycling. Elevated testosterone levels predicted high numbers of ovarian cysts. Alterations in steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis gene expression were also found via RNA-sequencing of ovarian tissue. The PCOS-like symptoms induced in these rats may share a similar etiology to PCOS in humans. Therefore, this model offers a unique opportunity to study PCOS at its genesis rather than following the development of disease symptoms.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 17: Stimulus Detection and Response Characteristics in Black Carpenter Ants
I examined stimulus detection in the black carpenter ant by measuring the maxilla-labium extension response (MaLER), or “licking” response, following stimulation of sensory appendages with sucrose solution. In the first experiment, ants harnessed in card stocks were presented with either water or sucrose on their antennae or palps. Each ant received four stimulation trials consisting of different combinations (e.g. water-palps, water-antenna, sucrose-palps, sucrose-antenna). Using this procedure, 32% of ants exhibited a MaLER. The second experiment harnessed ants in pipette tubes rather than card stock, and only involved two stimulation trials (water or sucrose) to the palps and antennae. 60% of the animals in the second experiment showed a MaLER (a 28% increase from the first experiment). The current study is examining the effects of starvation windows on MaLER, with the hopes to perform an associative learning task in the 4th experiment.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 18: Analyzing RTA-Clade Spider Silk Gene Proteins to Test Conflicting Phylogenetic Hypotheses of Orb-web Evolution
The orb-web is an architecturally advanced mechanism. There are conflicting hypotheses as to how two superfamilies, Araneoidea and Deinopoidea are related. The first hypothesis states that Araneoidea and Deinopoidea share a recent common ancestor and that the two superfamilies’ relationship is most accurately described by their morphological characteristics. However, the second hypothesis states that while Araneoidea and Deinopoidea are closely related, Deinopoidea is also sister to the RTA-Clade. Spiders in the RTA-Clade do not spin orb-webs, but have been found to share a significant number of housekeeping genes with Deinopoids. We will use the genes collected from the silk glands to determine what silk proteins are encoded for by the genes from each species. If these protein encoding genes are found in RTA-Clade species and are orthologous to genes collected from Deinopoids and Araneoids, then we will be able to deduce how and when the proteins evolved.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 19: Tornado Analysis with Fluid Mechanic Techniques
The way humans approach a particular day or a particular series of days is based on several different factors, one of which is the weather. It may influence our mood, our planned activities, and even our choice of clothing. When the weather becomes extreme, like in the case of tornados, its influence on these circumstances becomes increasingly greater. Tornados can affect the state of one’s home, the safety of loved ones, and in some cases an entire community’s future. For this reason, the ability to understand, analyze, and predict a tornado is vitally important. Fluid mechanics allows scientists to investigate conditions that indicate tornado formation, while also predicting its path and the damage it will likely cause. This analysis will look in particular at the Mulhall, Oklahoma tornado of May 3,1999. Investigation will be conducted using concepts of vorticity, deformation, streamline functions, and pressure fields used in fluid mechanics research.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 20: Access to snacks from weaning onward in female rats causes obesity, insulin insensitivity and sustained leptin resistance in adulthood.
We developed a female snacking rat model to investigate the mechanisms leading to childhood obesity. We hypothesized that constant access to snacks after weaning causes an early onset of metabolic syndrome. Rats received chow only, healthy snacks, or unhealthy snacks (n=8/group), and all received chow and water. Food intake, snack intake, and body weight were monitored daily. Both snacking groups weighed significantly more than chow-fed rats and had larger abdominal fat pads despite eating fewer calories. Leptin challenges showed that all pubertal rats were resistant to leptin’s ability to reduce food intake, and that snacking rats remained resistant to leptin as adults. A glucose tolerance test determined that snacking rats developed insulin resistance as adults. Thus, constant access to snacks induced early onset of metabolic syndrome. In addition, young rats, and probably humans, are vulnerable to snacks from weaning due to inherent leptin resistance that is sustained into adulthood.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 21: Quantification of Slow Wave Behavior after Induction of Intestinal Ischemia in a Porcine Model
Intestinal ischemia was induced in a porcine model (N = 4) in order to quantify slow wave (SW) behavior at its on- set. SW activity was lost approximately 300 s after induction. Before loss of SW activity, an increase in wave velocity was observed while wave frequency remained constant. These observations may inform the physiological underpinnings of SW activity and diagnostic techniques for intestinal ischemia.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 22: Piezo1: Mechanisms of Xenopus Laevis Optic Nerve Regeneration
Amphibians, unlike mammals, retain their ability to regenerate optic nerve tissue upon injury. Piezo1, a mechanosensitive ion channel, plays a role in optic nerve path-finding during early frog eye development. While preliminary data show piezo1 mRNA expression in eye retinoganglion cells is upregulated during the post-injury recovery period, the role of Piezo1 during nerve regeneration is unknown. Here we crush the right optic nerve of Xenopus laevis, harvest the optic nerves and eyes from 1 and 7 days post-surgery (dps), and determine Piezo1 expression levels in eye sections and in nerve sections near an injury site. If Peizo1 is involved in regrowth of nerve following injury, we expect to detect an increase in Piezo1 expression at 7dps compared to 1dps. These data would indicate involvement of path-finding mechanism similar to those that occur during development and would help fill the knowledge gap in understanding the underlying mechanisms of neural regeneration.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 23: Heat Transfer and Open Channel Flow
The main objective of the research was to understand if the addition of 3D printed plastic parts on top of the cylinder would change the amount of power required to heat the water. In order to do so, we learned the basics of the computer program Inventor to design the clips. Then, we were taught how to print to a 3D printer to have the physical copy of the clips. We also developed a laser alignment system using pieces of wood which allowed us to place the clips on the cylinder at specific intervals.The results showed that adding clips on top of the cylinder changed the heat transfer. There was a difference in the heat plume with and without the clips. We further concluded that the shape of the clip also influenced how the heat plume behaved.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 24: Waves of Learning-Investigating Collective Spatiotemporal Learning in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Pavlovian conditioning, whereby an animal is trained to respond to a specific stimulus, is a powerful assay to study learning and memory. However, the majority of studies have focused on learning in isolated individuals. Moreover, these studies typically evaluate learning performance in binary groupings of successful or unsuccessful conditioned responses. In nature, many organisms occupy social groups and experience learning as a complex dynamic process that changes over time. Here, we designed a classical conditioning experiment to study the temporal progression of collective learning in adult zebrafish. Our results suggest that collective learning during conditioning progresses in waves where animals are capable of forming higher level associations between stimuli over time.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 25: Traditional Healing Systems: A Global Comparative
The result of a five-month comparative research study conducted across four continents: the United States of America, Vietnam, South Africa, and Argentina. The research question served to answer how different healing systems interact within medically pluralistic societies. In each country, interviews, site visits, and guest lectures were used to collect research on the indigenous systems at work in communities, as well as the biomedical presence. Rural and urban aspects were also compared in each country. The project culminates in preliminary conclusions to the sub-questions: How do individuals choose which healing system to use? How does access and affordability affect the choice of healing method? How is the knowledge learned and shared? Research was conducted as a component of the School for International Training: International Honors Program within a research methods class.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 26: Timing and Mechanism of low grade deformation along the Rockfish Valley Deformation Zone in the Central Blue Ridge, VA
The Rockfish Valley Deformation Zone in Central Virginia is a 1-10 km wide zone of mylonitic rocks separating two differently hydrated massifs. Significant disagreement exists around the timing, extent, and significance of low-grade deformation in the Rockfish Valley Deformation Zone, and the proposed timing of deformation in this zone ranges from pre-750 Ma to approximately 350 Ma. Based on petrologic evidence, I propose that the variation between the similar but distinct basement units to the east and west of the deformation zone may be explained by fluid-assisted retrogression of the seaward unit during collision. Further, syn-kinematic titanite grains identified in mylonites and protomylonites of the shear zone which have incorporated Uranium into their chemical structures suggest an age of 396±230 Ma, the timing of low grade deformation.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 27: Access to safe drinking water in rural, urban, and agricultural regions of Ouest, Cameroon
The region of Ouest, Cameroon region lags behind the national levels of per capita access to improved water sources, and residents face environmental and infrastructural impediments to attaining safe and accessible drinking water. Various contaminants measured in a 2015 field study affect the agricultural region, village, and city in different ways causing 1) degraded drinking water quality; 2) point source and source pollutants; 3) a deficit in sewage customs and infrastructure; and 4) stagnant water as a health hazard. Spatial analysis of these water quality data spatially suggests various solutions for these four issues. Different proposals will be developed based on models for different environmental management strategies.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 28: ENVS Capstone: Feeding the World Without Water
Over half of all produce sold nationwide is grown in California. In recent years, California has been experiencing one of the longest lasting droughts in its history. Residents have been hit with water restrictions and high water costs to compensate of the lack of the valuable commodity. With threats of financial penalties, residents have surpassed Governor Brown's water reduction expectation. Farmers have not been held to the same restrictions. In many situations, farmers have been asked to conserve water based on their ethical desire to do so. Typically, in business this does not work. I will look at the effects of drought on the cost of water and the cost of produce. Lastly, I will analyze different forms of agricultural water management and approximate the feasibility of such changes.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 29: ENVS Capstone: Can Costa Rica meet its original deadline of becoming carbon-neutral by 2021 through the use of artificial trees as a new carbon capture mechanism?
In 2007, Costa Rica challenged itself to become a carbon-neutral nation by offsetting the nation’s carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality by 2021. This plan was later revised in 2015 and the country decided to settle for a new deadline of 2085 because the current strategies would not allow Costa Rica to meet its original deadline. Even though a new deadline was set, the projects designed to achieve this goal remained almost without consider the possibility of using new technologies that could drastically impact the country’s ability to reduce carbon emissions such as acritical trees, a form of geoengineering. This paper will focus on assessing the feasibility of including artificial trees as part of the Capacity Building, Technology Transfer and financing Adaptation Plan for 2016-2030 propose by the Costa Rican Ministry of Environment and Energy based on three parts:
1) National CO2 emission
2) Financial constraints
3) Ethical/legal implications


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 30: ENVS Capstone: How Tanzania's environmental policies hinder the natural migration patterns of ungulates during the wet and dry seasons
Northeastern Tanzania encompasses the Tarangire, Lake Manyara and Serengeti National Parks as well as the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Here, governmental policies are simultaneously allowing the construction of settlements and “compatible” human activities within conservation areas— actions that are already occurring along immediate borders of their national parks. These as well as other forms of human encroachment result in a negative impact on the unique wildlife of multiple ecosystems. This capstone will focus on the issue regarding the interruption of normal migration patterns for grazing mammals during the wet and dry seasons due to inefficient environmental policies. In order to substantiate this claim, the evidence in this capstone will be culled from previous scientific studies and related documentation. Additional environmental policies will be proposed along with an explanation of procedures and discussion of how their methods can improve the mobility of grazing mammals to and from protected areas.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 31: ENVS Capstone: The Effect of Political Instability on the Level of Damage Incurred from Natural Disasters
Natural disasters are usually defined as natural events (cyclones, earthquakes, floods) that cause extreme damage, resulting in serious economic loss and casualties. However, the severity of a natural disaster can also depend on human-related factors. Much research has been done on the extent that extreme weather events invoke instability and conflict. My research seeks to identify if this relationship also operates in the other direction. This paper explores the role that political instability plays in intensifying or mitigating the damages from a natural disaster. I utilize time-series and cross-country analyses amongst South Asian countries to measure how much variation in damages incurred (from natural disasters) is attributable to instabilty. I investigate potential mechanisms that this relationship works through, such as investment into disaster preparedness and regulation enforcement. A further understanding of the role that instability plays in vulnerability to extreme weather events is essential in the face of climate change.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 32: ENVS Capstone: From Coal to Clean Energy: A Choice Survey Analysis
The objective of this study is to quantify the general public's preferences regarding the transition of existing coal energy to clean energy. By replacing existing coal capacity, we can improve air quality in terms of human health while also combating climate change. My research question becomes, how much more money are people willing to pay to see a greater proportion of their energy come from renewables as we transition away from using coal? Through a choice modeling survey, I will find stakeholder's willingness to pay for replacing coal in favor of clean energy. Once the study is completed, I predict that the results will show policy makers that the public is willing to pay a larger sum of money to see their electricity come from a renewable energy source as opposed to coal or natural gas.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 33: ENVS Capstone Menhaden Management: Politics and Science of the Most Important Fish in the Sea
Atlantic Menhaden are a small, oily fish that are integral to the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. They are harvested and reduced for their Omega-3 oils, which are used in health supplements and animal feeds. The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) sets harvest caps for menhaden, but the Virginia General Assembly manages the fishery directly, even though the Virginia Marine Resources Commission (VMRC) manages every other fishery in Virginia. The reason the General Assembly still manages menhaden is because 85 percent of the Atlantic Menhaden catch in the Mid-Atlantic is harvested by a single, politically powerful corporation, Omega Protein. If the fishery were governed by the VMRC, regulation decisions would be based on science, not politics. The question becomes: what steps must be taken in order for the VMRC to gain control of the species’ regulation and make more holistic, effective, and science-based policies for this important fishery?


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 34: ENVS Capstone: Incorporating conservation units as a way to better manage short-finned pilot whales
The goal of this project is to synthesize a recommendation, through a literature review of studies done both in the northwest Atlantic and around the globe, for either 1) conservation units for the North Atlantic short-finned pilot whales, or 2) additional information that is still needed to be completed before these delineations can be made. The study aims to address an important question identified in cetacean research and seeks to anticipate problems that could arise as global warming becomes more and more prevalent. The study will examine short-finned pilot whale habitat, population genetics, threats, and policy to determine what recommendations can be made for management purposes and in what areas further research can be done.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 35: ENVS Capstone: The Hawaiian GE Papaya: A Microcosm for Understanding GMO Opposition and Strategies for Successful Implementation
This paper aims to understand the basis of consumer concern about the negative health impacts that are associated with GMOs. Specifically, this paper will use the genetically-engineered papaya in Hawaii as a case study in how to overcome public concern. Despite a relentless campaign by anti-GMO groups to halt approval, the GE papaya was approved for use. This paper will examine the overwhelming scientific evidence showing no harmful health impacts associated with the GE papaya and how the anti-GMO lobby misinterpreted scientific studies to cast the GE papaya in a negative light. As a research objective, this paper will compare the demographic determinants of negative attitudes toward GMO safety and the major concerns of Hawaiians to those of all Americans and investigate anti-GMO campaign tactics to explore whether this case can be used as a model for successful GMO implementation in the mainland USA.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 36: ENVS Capstone: Politics of Deforestation
Deforestation has been a major concern in Brazil in recent years. I plan to answer the question: Does the political party in power of a municipality affect the rate of deforestation in said municipality Brazil? I will use panel data to compare municipal rates of deforestation with municipal political party control over 4 election cycles from 2000 - 2016. I anticipate that the Green party will have the lowest levels of deforestation and the PT party and Brazilian Social Democratic Party will have the highest levels of deforestation due to their party ideologies. The findings of this research have the ability to educate Brazilian voters about an important political issue that they have shown they care about in a currently tumultuous political environment.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 37: Dating lacustrine molluscan subfossil assemblages using AAR techniques to assist in reconstructing the paleocommunities of temperate Wisconsin lakes
While numerous environmental conservation studies focus on recent conditions, conservation paleobiology uses the geologic record to establish environmental baselines from which to analyze deviation. Paleoecological reconstructions of lacustrine ecosystems inform assessments of fluctuating environmental quality. Here, we present data from surface and core-collected molluscan subfossil assemblages from a remediated Wisconsin lake. To estimate the degree of time-averaging in the core’s assemblages, we selected gastropods from throughout the core for amino acid racemization dating with radiocarbon calibration. Understanding the degree of time-averaging allows us to more accurately interpret data on paleocommunities. We can determine the effectiveness of current lake remediation practices in recovering molluscan communities by comparing the time-averaged species compositions to recent assemblages. If lacustrine remediation efforts have succeeded in reducing anthropogenic pressures, we would find a return of the molluscan communities to a baseline-like state. This reconstruction can be correlated with other proxy records to inform future conservation efforts.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 38: ENVS Capstone: Flood Insurance Risk Maps and Social Vulnerability in Orleans Parish
On September 30th, 2016 the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) replaced the previous Flood Insurance Risk Map (FIRM) of 1984 for Orleans Parish, Louisiana. FIRMs determine how the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) sets its rates, and they are an integral part of flood risk management. However, an important consideration is the demographics of the people projected to be affected, which is not included in the FIRMs. The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans illustrates the importance of assessing the relationship between social vulnerability and flood risk. Prior to Katrina, New Orleans was one of the poorest cities in the U.S, making residents especially vulnerable to such a catastrophe. In order to determine both the demographic and geographic changes in the 1984 and 2016 FIRMs for Orleans Parish, I will conduct an analysis using geographic information systems (GIS) in order to quantify and interpret the implication of the changes.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 39: ENVS Capstone: Bristol Bay Salmon and Pebble Mine: Maximizing Pebble's Economic Potential at Minimal Ecological Risk
This proposal attempts to shed light on the importance of Alaska's Bristol Bay sockeye salmon fisheries for commercial fishermen, sport fishermen, and the native tribal populations in Bristol Bay. However, the abundance of gold and copper deposits in nearby Pebble Mine, valued at $500 billion, presents development risks that threaten the ecological health of the Bay. Ultimately, this thesis will propose a number of solutions that would allow for the partial extraction of economically valuable resources from Pebble Mine in ways that would minimize ecological risk to the Bay and its fisheries. These solutions will primarily include implementation of green mining techniques, waste storage improvements, and varying degrees of extraction, compared in the context of a cost-benefit framework to eventually arrive at an ideal solution.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 40: Hegemonic Masculinity, Masculine Capital, and Sexual Orientation: Do Heterosexual and Non-Heterosexual Men Have Similar Views?
Masculinity is perceived to be a trait that can be earned or lost. Weaver, et al., (2010) found that college men attributed aggression to the situation rather than the disposition. Under hegemonic masculinity, aggression could be a key component of masculinity and therefore aggressive displays may be used to regain a masculine identity. However, not all men subscribe to this idea of masculinity. The current study was designed to test how non-heterosexual and heterosexual men might incorporate masculine identities differently. Specifically, we are interested in determining if non-heterosexual men view threats to others’ masculinity similarly and if they are more likely to attribute aggression to the situation. We are also interested in if non-heterosexual men are less likely to think about gender when making a decision. Finally, we are interested in if when threatened, non-heterosexual men will attribute more masculine qualities to attempt to appear masculine. Recruitment is underway.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 41: How Superhero Stories Impact Preschoolers’ Play with Female and Male Action Figures
According to social cognitive theory of gender development, children learn gendered behaviors by modeling those in their environment which includes the media. Girls have fewer role models in the media than boys, particularly those showing instrumental or agentic behaviors. The present study analyzed how the gender of superhero characters in a story impacts the way preschoolers play with action figures of both genders. One story was read to each child with either female or male superhero main characters. The children were then shown a town play set, heard three scenarios in which townspeople were in peril, and were given four action figures to complete the story. It was predicted that children would play with female action figures more and give them more superhero traits after hearing the female superhero story. This project has been approved by the Washington and Lee IRB and data from 25 participants has already been collected.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 42: Lego Teaching Project
Legos and construction toys enhance cognitive development, like spatial skills, for children. Yet, Legos are marketed to and played with more by boys than girls. Could this difference stem from adults’ interaction with boys and girls during Lego play? Dr. Fulcher’s Gender Development lab is currently collecting data from 44 female and 26 male participants for phase 1 of the “Lego Teaching Project.” College students build a Lego figurine, then give instructions for the figure over an audio-recorder to a Girl Scout troop, Boy Scout troop, or co-ed Karate class. In Phase 2, college students from another university listen to these instructions and attempt to build the figurine. Instructions intended for boys may prove more helpful than instructions for girls, as boys are perceived as more capable of STEM learning. We hope to analyze differences in participants’ instructions to examine how college-aged students view STEM abilities in girls and boys.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 43: Perceptions of Femininity in Female Athletes and Non-Athletes
I will present on my psychology capstone research project. I have been working on a study that examines perceptions of femininity in female athletes and non-athletes in the W&L community. This research stems from previous research on masculinity that shows manhood is easily threatened and that men often attempt to regain their masculinity once it has been threatened. They do this through aggression and distancing themselves from femininity. I seek to understand if it is possible to threaten femininity, something that has not been tested before. Additionally, I am interested in whether or not athletic participation may protect certain females from the potential repercussions of threatening femininity. To do this, I will examine the impact threatening or endorsing one’s femininity on their self-confidence in different domains, their preferences, and how much makeup they choose to put on an avatar of their face.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 44: Coaching Style and Its Affect On Student Outcomes
Students typically interact with a coach-like figure in their life, whether it be in sports, the dance studio, the theatre, or the academic arena. Most of the current research is focused on improving team dynamics and athletic performance, but the effects of coach and peer relationships extend into people’s everyday life. The goal of this study is to construct a mediational model between coaching styles and students’ outcomes based on quality of both coach-player and peer relationships. All participants will be asked to fill out surveys that gauge the group’s coaching style, while players will further self-report the quality of their relationships with their coaches and peers, their ability to regulate their emotions, and their engagement in risky behaviors. It is hypothesized that those exposed to coaches high in supportiveness will see positive outcomes in students’ emotion regulation and risk-taking behaviors through the mediation of coach-player attachment and peer relationships.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 45: Gendered Differences in Interoception and Embodiment
This research aims to understand the relationships between gender, awareness of internal bodily sensations (interoception) and feelings of body ownership (embodiment) among preadolescents and early adolescents. Embodiment has been inversely correlated with disorders such as body dysmorphia, so establishing a connection between interoceptive awareness and embodiment would give valuable insight into possible body image and eating disorder interventions. Participants will be recruited through a University database as well as flyers posted in local businesses. First, participants will complete a heartbeat detection task to assess interoception. After a distractor task, the Body Responsiveness Scale (Daubinmier, 1965) and the Body Awareness Questionnaire (Shields, Mallory & Simon, 1989) will be given to assess embodiment. It is hypothesized that female participants will show decreased interoceptive awareness compared to males, female participants will show a decreased sense of embodiment compared to male participants, and among all participants interoceptive awareness will be positively correlated with embodiment.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 46: Effect of Pre-TMS Activity on TMS-Evoked Response in PAS-Induced Plasticity
Stroke is currently the leading cause of long-term adult disability in the US. Current recovery of hand motor function in 55-75% of stroke survivors is unsatisfying, so there is a strong need for new innovative strategies to improve stroke rehabilitation. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive tool used to study cortical excitability and brain plasticity and may hold the capacity to increase plasticity, leading to higher levels of learning and memory, which are necessary to improve patient recovery. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is a specific type of TMS where low frequency repetitive nerve stimulation is combined with timed TMS over the motor cortex of the brain. This specific technique is capable of strengthening synaptic connections between neurons, indicating that PAS may have the potential to enhance motor learning and improve stroke recovery.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 47: The Effect of Gender and Gender Expression on Evaluations of Scientists' Competence
The current study investigates the impact of gender and gender expression on evaluations of scientists’ competence and hireability. Prior research shows that female scientists are viewed as less competent than male scientists (Moss-Racusin et al., 2012), and feminine women are viewed as less likely to be scientists than masculine women (Banchefsky et al., 2016). However, research has not yet fully examined the interaction between gender and gender expression on evaluations of competence. Currently, undergraduate participants will read the biography of a student in a biology Master’s program and rate his or her competence and hireability. The student’s sex and interests will be varied such that he or she is a masculine male, masculine female, feminine male, or feminine female. Because competence ratings can impact career choices and opportunities, it is critical to determine if evaluations of competence are influenced by scientists’ gender, gender expression, or a combination of the two.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 49: The Role of Emotion on Mindfulness-Induced Motivation
This study examined the associations between mindfulness, change in positive affect, and motivation. Specifically, we were investigating if a change in positive affect mediated the relationship between mindfulness and motivation, which was measured through two variables: a motivation scale and a motivation task. The current study included 16 participants. Participants were randomly assigned to either the mindfulness or control condition, which determined which audio they listened to. All participants completed a mental arithmetic task and the same questionnaires: the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Toronto Mindfulness Scale, and the Situational Motivation Scale. After an independent-samples t-test and two series simple regressions, one significant result arose: higher levels of mindfulness were associated with higher scores on the motivation scale. It cannot be concluded from this study that change in positive affect mediates the association between mindfulness and motivation, but this study supports that mindfulness is significantly associated with motivation.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 50: Fancy a Laugh?: Is Relevant Humor More Effective as a Coping Mechanism for Social Anxiety
Previous studies have shown humor as an effective coping mechanism for anxiety (Mark, 2007). The purpose of this study was to determine what type of humor (relevant versus non-relevant) is most effective for stress reduction. A between-subject research design tested the hypothesis that compared to non-relevant humor, relevant humor would more significantly decrease anxiety induced by social exclusion. Social anxiety was induced in forty University students by a computerized game Cyberball. Three conditions of videos (relevant, non-relevant, and control) were used as independent variables. PANAS mood questionnaire measured the dependent variable of state anxiety; however, results did not support our hypothesis. We conclude future studies should utilize a different manipulation in order to measure differences between humor types for coping.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 51: Interactions of Reward and Motivation Type on Workplace Relevant Performance
This study attempts to investigate the effects of rewards on intrinsically or extrinsically motivated individuals on a workplace relevant task. In an attempt to capture a workplace relevant performance measure, participants first complete a series of math tasks measuring their accuracy and response times as they take the imagined role of an entry-level worker in a large accounting firm. On only one of the two rounds there is an opportunity for reward (a snack and chance to win a $50 amazon gift card). Afterwards, they complete both two motivation questionnaires assessing their reasons for working in their career or toward academic achievement. Finally they are assessed on their current affect. The first hypothesis is that extrinsically motivated individuals will show improved performance in the reward condition compared to intrinsically motivated individuals. The second hypothesis is that a reward manipulation would not significantly affect intrinsically motivated individuals’ performance.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 52: The Cognitive Process behind the Attentional Blink: Visual Working Memory and Processing Speed
This study is being conducted to determine the underlying cause of the attentional blink phenomenon through the use of two cognitive tasks. The attentional blink is interesting because it shows how people cannot continually pay attention to stimuli in our environment, so we miss things that happen in rapid succession of each other. The two tasks being used are a visual working memory task and a processing speed task. These are the two most common ways to test the attentional blink, but we want to determine which one is more predictive of a person's attentional blink. We believe that by creating our own adaptive visual working memory (VWM) task, we will get a more sensitive measure of VWM. This will help better determine the correlations between attentional blink and VWM.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 53: The cost of threatening distractor stimuli on visual search
People have perceptual bias toward threatening stimuli like spiders and snakes. We know that people will see and attend to the threatening stimuli more quickly than other distractors, but we do not know whether people will become fixated on this threat, or quickly avert their attention. This behavior will be measured by using different types of salient distractors to determine the “response time cost” distractors have on a visual search. We then can compare visual search performance between threatening (using images of spiders) and neutral distractors. It is expected that participants will be more fixated on threatening stimuli than neutral, resulting in increased response costs. Additionally, it is expected that better visual search performance with lower response costs will be associated with improved visual working memory capacity, after controlling for search differences and degree of spider phobia.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 54: Trust as a Moderator to Motivation and Organizational Commitment on Team Sports as Compared to Individual Sports
Previous research linking trust, motivation, and organizational commitment in the realm of business has increased understanding about how these constructs interact and increase profits (Sharfman, Shaft & Anex, 2007). The proposed study seeks to examine whether similar associations will translate to a sports field. Furthermore, this study seeks to examine differences between individual oriented sports teams and how they might differ in culture dynamics compared to team oriented sports. For this study there are two different hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that type of sport (individual or team) is expected to moderate the relationship between team trust and motivation, with team sports strengthening the relationship between the two variables whereas individual sports weaken the relationship. The second hypothesis is type of team is expected to moderate the relationship between team trust and organizational commitment, with team sports strengthening the relationship between the two variables whereas individual sports weaken the relationship.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 55: The Relationship of Working Memory Capacity, Response Inhibition, and Perceptual Speed on Task-Switching Ability
Everyday life involves frequent shifts of attention between different cognitive tasks and activities. When participants are exposed to a task-switching experiment, responses tend to be substantially slower and usually more error-prone when randomly presented with the direction to switch tasks. This is called the switch cost, and we are interested in the mechanisms that underlie this cost and the ability to perform a task-switching task. We believe that heightened response inhibition, working memory, and/or perceptual speed work together to compose an individual’s ability to shift attention and that performance on these tasks will act as a predictor of performance on a task-switching paradigm. As a result, we have created a study to test this hypothesis. If participants have high levels of response inhibition and a large working memory capacity, we believe that they will respond more accurately and quicker given varying trial times.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 56: Effect of Ailment Severity and Wait Time on Patient Willingness to be Seen by a Physician Assistant
This study examines how ailment severity and wait time affect patient willingness to be seen by a physician assistant versus a medical doctor. Previous studies have been conducted examining this dichotomy, but the studies mentioned earlier looked specifically at Emergency Medicine and non-U.S. populations (Counselman, Graffeo, Hill, 2000; Larkin & Hooker, 2010; Kuilman et. al, 2012).
It is important to investigate this because the number of Physician Assistants (PAs) is projected to increase in years to come due to a multitude of factors and it is unclear if patients have a negative or positive attitude towards these healthcare providers. The current study will provide insight about the relationships between healthcare providers and patients, with the hope of improving these relationships in the future.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 57: Comparison between the Expression of Behaviors that 'Model' Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in Female versus Male Rats
Although the role of sex and gender on medicine has been acknowledged for some time, there has been no transference of this appreciation for differences between sexes in animal research. Animal models of psychiatric disorders serve as invaluable research tools for the development of new avenues of treatment in humans. Thus, the reliance on male-only subjects in animal research, often on the principle that female subjects risk confounding data as their hormone levels are continuously oscillating, is bad practice. The new appreciation for the limitations of this single-gender approach when investigating psychiatric disorders, which often presents equally in both male and female humans, such as Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, inspired this study. Our research team is evaluating potential gender differences in a promising novel model of OCD by comparing the expression of “OCD-like” behaviors in female (n=16) versus male (n=11) rats in the Hole Board, Marble Arena, and Elevated Plus Maze.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 58: Genetic Programming
Lexicase is a parent selection method developed for use in genetic programming. Lexicase selection utilizes a randomized order of test cases and the entire population. The algorithm looks at the first test case in the randomized list and keeps only the member of the population that performed the best on that test case, and discards the rest. Then using this smaller niche of the population, lexicase selection looks at the next case and in the list and again only keeps the individuals that perform the best on this test case. This process continues until either one individual is left, or a group of individuals that performed the same on each error vector, in that case a random individual from that group is chosen. The individual that remains after lexicase selection is used as a parent to breed individuals for the next generation. This project looks at ways of improving lexicase.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 59: Quantifying the effects of El Niño on Acropora cervicornis abundance at Coral Gardens, Belize
In recent decades, coral reef mortality has been increasingly high, putting many species at risk of extinction. Among these is the coral Acropora cervicornis that historically has acted as a framework coral for Caribbean reefs. Declining live coral cover has been attributed to disease, warming ocean temperatures, overfishing, and natural sub-decadal climate cycles such as El Niño. The 2015-16 El Niño event has been one of the strongest in recorded history, leading scientists to project significant coral mortality via heat-induced bleaching in the Caribbean and elsewhere. It was also unusual for its long length. Coral Gardens, Belize is noted for having high A. cervicornis cover. My advisor, Dr. Greer, has worked at this site since 2011 proving it is a refugia for these corals. We aimed to quantify changes in coral cover in an area of previously documented high A. cervicornis resilience over the latest El Niño cycle and earlier.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 60: Bringing Belize to Campus
All the project participants interned in different parts of Belize in the past. We are hoping to share our experiences with the rest of the student body and faculty in W&L and open up a conversation about ways we can maintain those connections that each of us has established with communities we worked with. We will present our work in a poster format or video.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 61: The Inclusive Classroom For Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Due to rising prevalence rates and symptom heterogeneity, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is of particular concern to general education teachers who are untrained in assisting the unique needs of the 1 in 68 students who are diagnosed with ASD each year. This pervasive developmental disorder involves myriad symptoms that are often noticeable before age three (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2016). While inclusive classrooms have been proven to be beneficial for academic, social, and emotional growth, developmental differences in children with ASD may manifest as aberrant problem behaviors in their social and emotional functioning, communication, sensory integration, or as repetitive/restrictive interests in the classroom. For my senior capstone, I gathered findings from research based interventions about classroom structural and curricular changes that aim to decrease the problem behavior in order to give all students with ASD the opportunity to achieve their academic potential in the least restrictive environment. "


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 62: Language translates to executive functions: investigating the bilingual advantage in inhibitory control
The bilingual advantage hypothesis claims that command over two languages alters brain structure and function. The need of a bilingual to maintain both languages active simultaneously, inhibit one, and flexibly switch between both may transfer to executive functions (EFs): a group of top-down control processes. This study investigates the effect of mono- and bilingualism on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility across age groups. Results will demonstrate which linguistic experiences are most advantageous and at what age, if at all, the bilingual advantage becomes robust. Implementing an online format, mono- and bilinguals (ages 18-89, n = 325) completed a language background and demographic questionnaire. EFs were assessed using a Simon task, task-switching paradigm, and directed forgetting paradigm. It is hypothesized that bilinguals will outperform monolinguals on all EF tasks and that age of active onset and amount of language switching will be most predictive of outcomes.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 63: A Case Study in Transcreation: Cultural Comparisons through Advertising
This summer I received a Woolley and Johnson Scholarship to spend time in Italy exploring advertising/marketing in a foreign setting. I quickly became very interested in the idea of "transcreation," in other words, how advertising is adapted to fit different languages, cultures, and geographic areas. You cannot simply translate an advertisement from English to Japanese and publish it, because there are cultural norms, slang words, etc that must be incorporated. My plan is to do a case study looking at two companies who publish advertisements in Italy and America and transcreate an advertisement from English to Italian (and vs versa) while taking into account changes in design and wording in order to fit the opposing culture. This project will incorporate ideas of international business, marketing, cultural studies, and art. I plan to creatively present this project and design/draw parts of the new advertisements I create.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 64: Fraternal Power
W&L claims “approximately 77% of students are members of Greek organizations, 80% of women; 74% of men. With such a large portion of the student body participating, the W&L Greek System has a considerable amount of social power, this is specifically the case with men. Due to Panhellenic policies, sororities are not permitted to have parties inside of their on-campus houses. However, fraternities have no such rules and are able to hold parties at their chapter houses as well as off campus houses. This gender specific policy creates an environment where fraternities are the hegemonic social power on campus. W&L hosts 13 national fraternities, and each organization has varying degrees of status that the student body assigns and agrees upon. This creates a system of fraternities where some are more respected and well liked than others. Sparking the creation and maintenance of a hierarchy that favors certain fraternities over others.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 65: Individual Sleep Factors and Consequences in College Students
College is a major transitional period in the development of health behaviors that will continue on throughout life. Studies have uncovered various factors affecting sleep patterns, particularly in this age group. College students’ schedules are heavily influenced by their many commitments both academically and extracurricularly. These along with other factors such as natural circadian rhythms, personality, interpersonal styles, and phone use as well as attachment style can be detrimental to both sleep quality and quantity, resulting in a wide array of ramifications towards the individual’s health and wellbeing. We propose a literature review on studies showing the causes and effects of insufficient sleep, with particular focus on the 18-22 age group. We would like to display this in a poster format showing the inputs and outcomes of inadequate sleep including poor academic performance, increased anxiety and depression, driving distraction, strain on social relationships, as well as basic physiological wellbeing.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 66: A History of the Executive Committee and Student Self Government at Washington and Lee
On May 22, 1905, Washington and Lee students met in Lee Chapel to address mismanagement of student organizations and concerns about the Honor System. It was at this meeting that the students created the Executive Committee of the Student Body and charged it with promoting college spirt, developing mutual respect among students, addressing university-wide concerns, and pursuing improvements to student life. From the first recorded Honor System hearing in February of 1906 to the campus political party system that existed in the middle of the twentieth century, the Executive Committee as an institution has remained a fixture of campus life in expected and surprising ways.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 67: Locked Up: Demore, Mandatory Detention, and the Fifth Amendment
Will discuss my work-in-progress Note breaking down a current split among the federal circuit courts regarding the application of a statute mandating detention for certain criminal non-citizens pending deportation proceedings. There are questions about the constitutionality of the statute, which has led to the present split. My Note also delves into the history of Congress' plenary power over regulating immigration, as evidenced through a history of Supreme Court decisions on the subject.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 68: Dual Market Misgivings: When Playing Both Sides is Wrong
Did you ever wonder if any ethical problems arise when corporations market and profit from the sale of one product that is designed as a remedy for another product they also sell? In my paper, I talk about big tobacco, and how the alternative tobacco and smoking-cessation tools industries have grown into a substitute for cigarettes, and a profitable one at that. Should companies be deploying for-profit products at both ends of such a chain, and if they are, what does this tell us about their real motives (do they REALLY want anyone to quit for good?) Explore these questions and more as you read into my paper "Dual Market Misgivings.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 69: American Firearms Manufacturers may need Corporate Social Responsibility to Combat Divestment
In the past three years, three U.S. gun manufacturers have been immensely profitable (Ruger, Remington, and Smith & Wesson (RRS); Ruger’s stocks have increased close to 400% over that time. However, these manufacturers are facing increased scrutiny as gun violence continues. Some points I intend to explore are:
Investor expectations
What do investors and shareholders think of the current scrutiny?
Do they think the manufacturers should be doing more to better or protect their imagine in the community? Other entities (non-profits and municipalities) are encouraging mutual funds and banks to divest gun stocks. Can interactions with the community reverse or slow this trend?


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 70: Sensing fluid pressure during plucking events in a natural bedrock channel
Plucking, the wholesale removal of bedrock blocks from channel beds, is thought to be a dominant mechanism of river incision over geologic time, yet it remains a poorly understudied phenomenon. Observations from our flume studies indicate that plucking is most likely to occur in the presence of free surface undulations such as hydraulic jumps and standing waves produced by resistant bedrock steps or flow constrictions. We hypothesize that these free surface undulations also create sub-block pressure differences that are transmitted through the crack network and that may contribute to the plucking process. To investigate the relationship between fluid pressure and block movement, this study uses motion- and pressure-sensors embedded within a bedrock block to detect variations in fluid pressure above and below the block as well as record associated movement. Film footage and early experimental data support the presence of dynamic water exchange between the sub-bed network and river above.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 71: Hackflight: a simulation system for Miniature Aerial Vehicles
Presentation of research done in Professor Levy's lab over the summer of 2016. We have a poster already completed which was shown at the poster symposium during fall term. In addition we could set up test drives of our simulation software and possibly flight demonstrations with our drones if given a 15 foot by 15 foot clear area for safety. Drones are small and light enough that they can be flown indoors safely so long as a crowd follows simple safety instructions.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 72: Bioturbation by Earthworms and Its Effect on the Fossil Record
Bioturbation, the process by which biological agents mix sedimentary layers, influences fossil preservation. While burrowing, organisms may move sediment and displace fossilized remains, thereby compromising the integrity of a paleontological site. A recreation of an experiment by Armour-Chelu and Andrews (1994), this project addresses issues with their methodology and tests their results while utilizing time-lapse photography. We set up three glass cylinders filled with different amounts of compost, clay-rich soil, and leaf litter. One cylinder was used as a control and contained no earthworms; the other two differed in soil composition. Beads were placed in the cylinders at different horizons to represent animal remains and track vertical and horizontal displacement by earthworm movement. We hypothesize that earthworms will affect bead placement over the run time of this experiment (approximately 1 month). This suggests that paleontologists should consider the effect of bioturbation on fossil assemblages.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 73: 3D Strain from Rutilated Quartz and its Relationship to Quartz Crystallographic Preferred Orientations
Strain analysis can assess variations in deformation along the strike of a mountain belt, while deformed rutile inclusions in quartz can be used to quantify the three-dimensional strain within a rock. We have studied rutile inclusions within quartz from samples of the Antietam Formation, an Early Cambrian orthoquartzite in the Blue Ridge of central VA. Both prolate and oblate strain shapes are observed, while maximum stretch values vary from 1.2 to 1.6. The 3D strain solutions are used to orient quartz crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) data collected through electron backscatter diffraction. Usually, CPO results are interpreted with respect to the macroscopic foliation and lineation directions; however, these features are generally lacking in hand samples of the Antietam. When aligned parallel to the principal directions determined from the strain analysis, the quartz CPO data show coaxial deformation with small circles oriented around the maximum shortening direction.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 74: Computational Analysis of Ribosomal Collisions in S. Cerevisiae
Translation is the final target of gene expression and ultimately determines the phenotype of individuals. Translation converts the language of nucleic acids that are encoded into short-lived mRNA into the language of proteins. Biological enzymes, called ribosomes, are the mechanism that allows this conversion to happen. Multiple ribosomes can translate a single mRNA and a disruption in translation can lead to collisions between ribosomes. This research seeks to improve our model to more accurately predict where ribosomal collisions occur by analyzing the characteristics of regions where collisions are found.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 75: Protein-RNA binding in glycolytic enzymes
Over the past few years, the RNA-binding proteins have been increasingly studied. This increase happened after the discovery that the iron-responsive element-binding protein1 (IRP1) is involved in the control of iron metabolism by binding messenger RNA (mRNA) to repress translation or degradation while also participating in the citric acid cycle. Genetic mutations generate dysfunctional metabolic enzymes, being the most common cause of inherited metabolic disorders, such as the hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia (HNSHA) and the hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), and also interfering in the RNA-binding process. We study how glycolytic enzymes bind mRNAs, looking at which mRNAs are bound to these enzymes. Our goal is to provide an in vivo description of mRNA targets for glycolytic enzymes, creating a complete picture of mRNA regulation by the glycolytic pathway, as well as to provide new insight into how disease-causing mutations in glycolytic enzymes disrupt RNA-binding.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 76: Unraveling The Role of Helicases in Nonfunctional rRNA Decay
Ribosomes are essential, long-lived, and highly abundant molecular machines responsible for protein synthesis. However, when ribosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are functionally compromised, their ribosomal RNA (rRNA) components are rapidly degraded through a quality control pathway termed nonfunctional ribosomal RNA decay (NRD). We hypothesize that one or more helicases, which disrupt RNA secondary structure, may be important for NRD. Using single gene knock-out strains we are measuring how these helicases affect the growth rate of yeast. To date, we have discovered a slow growth phenotype in two helicase gene deletion strains, ?SKI2 and ?SLH1. We are also investigating how well the NRD pathway is functioning in these mutant strains using RT-qPCR, a technique that quantitatively measures RNA expression. We hope this work will provide insight into the role of helicases in RNA degradation mechanisms and contribute to our understanding of NRD.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 77: Investigating Nonfunctional rRNA Decay in Aging Yeast
Ribosomes are essential macromolecular complexes responsible for cellular protein synthesis. Due to their importance, correct ribosome structure and function is monitored by numerous quality control pathways. One of these pathways, nonfunctional ribosomal RNA decay (NRD), removes defective ribosomes in eukaryotes by degrading their essential ribosomal RNA (rRNA) components. Our lab aims to identify natural stresses that trigger NRD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). Since rRNAs are usually very stable, and may accumulate damage over time, aging may be one such potential stress. To study the effects of aging on NRD, total RNA was isolated from yeast cultured for various times. Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis displayed less total rRNA content in aging yeast cultures compared to younger cultures. Initial experiments suggest that this may be due to increased NRD activity in the aging yeast cultures. However, further tests using RT-qPCR are underway to quantify the effect of aging on NRD.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 78: Investigating the Relationship between NRD and Ribophagy
Eukaryotes have complex quality control checks that ensure ribosomes are both structurally and functionally sound. Amongst these surveillance pathways are 18S and 25S nonfunctional rRNA decay (NRD), which detect and eliminate nonfunctional rRNAs in the small and large subunits of the ribosome. Conversely, ribophagy is another ribosomal degradation pathway, which is induced by nitrogen starvation. Although a direct link has not been established between NRD and ribophagy, both rRNA degradation mechanisms involve ubiquitin ligase proteins and ubiquitin specific protease complexes. We hypothesize that because of this possible mechanistic overlap, NRD activity can affect ribophagy and vice versa. To investigate the relationship between these pathways, we are measuring NRD under nitrogen deprivation conditions. Total RNA is then isolated from these cells, and the rRNA content is analyzed by RT-qPCR. We hope these experiments will aid our understanding of these pathways as well as their relationship to each other and their efficiency.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 79: Ribosome Processivity
Protein synthesis is a vital process for organisms to maintain life. To produce proteins, mRNA, a temporary copy of genetic material, is transported into the cytoplasm and is translated by ribosomes. During translation, ribosomes attach onto an mRNA to translate it into functional protein. Ribosome processivity is the likelihood that a ribosome will finish translation once it has attached. Ribosome processivity is not well-studied,but we do know that ribosomes must be highly processive especially when they are required to translate large proteins.
However, we do not know what factors aid ribosome processivity or even what mRNA sequences cause ribosomes to abort translation. By investigating ribosome processivity in vivo, we will be able to further study the factors that affect ribosome processivity. Here, we characterize a reporter mRNA that allows us to investigate ribosome processivity in vivo. We observe that not all cells in a population contain processive ribosomes.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 80: Beta Adrenergic Antagonists: A Focused Review
ß-adrenergic antagonists (or ß-blockers) are a class of medications which attempt to treat hypertension by preventing the activation of ß-adrenoceptors in cardiac muscle, as this activation increases heart rate and the force of contractions. More specifically, ß-adrenergic antagonists often target ß1-adrenoceptors because they are the predominant subtype found in cardiac muscle. Our presentation will go over the characteristics of the different generations of these drugs, how they differ in their specificity for the various subtypes of ß-adrenoceptors, and the significance of this specificity for treating patients with other health complications.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library

3:00pm

Easel 81: Fabrication of Silicon Nitride Waveguides for Photonic Integrated Circuits
With the current integrated circuit technology nearing the end of its capacity to become smaller, and to consequently also become faster, the scientific community is hopeful that a new technology will arise. One candidate is for waveguides to replace the copper interconnects in integrated circuits. Our study involves the first steps for developing this technology. We focus on fabricating silicon nitride waveguides and testing them for transmission capabilities to demonstrate the potential for on-chip optical interconnects that are compatible with industry standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor fabrication processes.


Friday March 17, 2017 3:00pm - 4:15pm
Leyburn Library